F T HE «
HEROES OF THE BOER WAR.
PRESIDENTS S. J. P. KRUGER AND M. T. STEIJN.
HEKOES OF THE BOER AVAR
(LATE PARLIAMENTARY AND WAH CORRESPONDENT OF THE VOLKS&TEM, PRETORIA)
WITH AN INTRODUCTION
MAJOR-GENERAL ALBERT PFISTEB
AND A PREFACE
W. T. STEAD
WITH ONE HUNDRED AND FORTY FOUR ILLUSTRATIONS AND TWO MAPS
LONDON THE BAGUE AND PRETORIA
"REVIEW OF REVIEWS" OFFICE THE "NEDERLAND" PUBLISHING CO.
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
THIS book is one which ought to form part of every collection of the
literature of the South African War.
For several reasons:
First, because it gives more fully than any other book yet published an
account of the Boers and their leaders as they appear in the eyes of the Dutch
of South Africa. Hitherto with few exceptions our public has had to form its
opinion about the Boer Generals and Statesmen from the narratives of their
enemies. In this book we have the Heroes of the War painted by one who is
one of their own people, who shares their aspirations, who has lived their life
and who therefore possesses the first essential for giving us an accurate portrait
of the men of whom he writes.
Secondly, because it is only by reading this book that we English can
understand how it was that the whole non-English world regarded with horror and
indignation the British devastation of the two Republics. For this book, trans-
lated into many languages, has been the chief source from which the European
peoples drew their ideas of the Boers and their leaders. It says little for our
willingness to hear both sides that it was not until the close of the war that
the book could be published in England. If our people had but seen the
burghers as they may see them in the pages of this book, they would surely have
recoiled from the perpetration of the crime against humanity with which the
British Government stained the annals of the Empire at the dawn of the Twen-
Thirdly, and this is the most important reason of all, in this book we may
refresh our souls and strengthen our hearts by looking once more upon the
Heroes win) have compelled a wondering world to recognize that the Heroic
Age is not yet closed and that Nature's teeming womb is still producing sons
whose deeds of high emprise are worthy to rank with the most famous exploits
recorded in the annals of classic Greece and Rome. The conduct of the British
in devastating the Republics with a ruthlessness worthy of Hyder Ali and Genghis
Khan has made us all ashamed of the race to which we belong. But the Boers
from the highest to the lowest have restored our faith in mankind. Humanity,
which has been disgraced by the policy of those who slew 20,000 children and
5,000 women in the concentration camps and then reduced the men to submission
by exposing the remnants of their womenfolk to death by torture of starvation
and outrage among the Kaffirs of the veldt, has been redeemed by the heroic
constancy, the chivalrous magnamity, the unconquerable devotion of the Boers.
A hundred years hence it is probable that, even in England, no one will
remember the names of Kitchener, of Roberts and of Buller, excepting as men
remember the name of Xerxes or of Cornwallis. As the fame of Leonidas pre-
serves from oblivion the name of the Persian barbarian who sought to overwhelm
Hellas by the immensity of his armaments, so Lord Milner will probably live in
history by reason of the reflected refulgence of the heroic patriotism of President
Steijn. Let no one say that this is to take too optimistic a view of the justice
of history. It is not a hundred years since Andreas Hofer died. Every school-
boy is familiar with the exploits of that indomitable Boer of the Tyrol. Who
is there even among our students that can recall without an effort the names
of the generals who hunted him to death?
"Great wars come and great wars go
Wolf-tracks o'er new-fallen snow — "
and many a time and often in the annals of the past a nationality has been
brought to birth by the labour pains of invasion and conquest. Before the war
there were three sets of Dutch-speaking men in South Africa. They were divided
politically and they were very far from recognizing each other as a brotherhood,
members one of another by common sacrifices in the past and common aspirations
in the future. To-day, in the fiery furnace of a devastating war, all differences
have disappeared. Out of the dust and confusion of the three years' war there
has emerged an Africander nation one and indivisible, baptized in the blood of
heroes and consecrated by the nameless graves of thousands of women and little
children, who died martyrs to the Fatherland. Once again, "Freedom doth forge
her mail of adverse fates," and British ascendancy in South Africa will be found
tb have received its death-blow when British Ministers proclaimed the annexation
of the Republics.
For my part, as a British Imperialist in the only true sense, I venture to
hope that the British flag may wave long over South Africa. But the condition
without which the permanent retention of the British flag becomes impossible
is the recognition in South Africa, as in Canada and as in Australia, of the right
of the Africanders to govern their own country in their own way, with an in-
dependence as absolute and unfettered as if these were Republics in name as well
as in fact. If, in the days to come, a Boer Prime Minister occupies Mr. Rhodes's
house at Groote Schuur, as the first Premier of Federated South Africa, and if
the permanent majority of white men in the new Commonwealth are left as free
to shape their own destinies to their own liking as the Australians, without
interference from Downing Street, then the British flag may be left flying over
South Africa. If not, not. The issue rests with Britain. With the flag, if we
are just and loyal to our old Liberal English principles; without the flag, if we
continue to trample Liberty and Justice under foot, the Africanders will rule
And when the United States of South Africa come into existence, both
Briton and Boer will look back with honour and reverence and gratitude to the
Founders of the New Commonwealth, the Heroes of the late War, whose story
is told in this volume, which it is my privilege to commend to the attention
of my countrymen.
• 7a """' 3/ 19 ° 3 - WILLIAM T. STEAL).
rpHE deep silence which broods over the Veldt falls with a sense of oppression
upon the heart, as though the soul, heavy with the spirit of prophecy, quailed
before the awful presentiment of coming horror.
But as yet all is calm and peaceful.
As far as the eye can reach, the tall grasses wave in the breeze, here in
golden radiance, reminding one of northern corn-fields, there, near some hidden
stream, shimmering in emerald splendour. Above stretches the deep blue dome
of heaven; on the far horizon, what is that? Clouds? Mountains? Neither: it is
A horseman, mounted on a small wiry-looking pony, canters lightly across
the Veldt. His dress proclaims him half farmer, half hunter. Yellow riding-boots,
tightly-fitting breeches, a simple grey jacket, his very business-like rifle his
bandoleer amply supplied with ammunition give him a somewhat martial
appearance. The bearded, sun-burnt face looks resolute, rugged, stern, and would
be forbidding, but for the frank expression of the clear blue eyes:
THIS IS THE BOER.
He rides like one who knows every inch of the ground. No wonder, for
it is his inheritance! Bright with the blood of his ancestors, wrested from
wild beasts, wrested from savages wilder still, it is his! And he means to
keep it and to hand on his inheritance to his children, as his father did before
him, even at the price of his life.
The fathers conquered a wilderness; the sons by the sweat of their brow
turned it into a garden. But not in agriculture alone have they succeeded. Their
State, though young, is promising; their legislation is wise; they have done
much for trade and education. Tn their determined efforts towards civil and
intellectual progress, they have done bravely. At the Paris Exhibition of 1900,
the Transvaal received special distinctions for her public schools, for both
elementary and advanced education. Who dares dispute the Boer's rights?
Examine and accept them, for he has paid his purchase-money in blood and
tears, in endurance and heroism. He holds his own by right of humanity,
justice and, if you will, sentiment; for he has planted the poetry of his simple
Arcadian life into this new soil: the poetry that sings of the hero who fights
not for honour and renown, but for the highest instinct that God lias planted in the
\ i i PROEM.
human heart: the love of liberty; the love of wife and child; the love of house
and home: the poetry of clean living and pure thinking. Then came the
discovery of gold. And as the pure flame attracts the winged insects of the
night, so the gleam of the precious metal drew the outcasts of the world and the
greed of the Outlander speculator. Peace and calm have gone. Will they ever return?
With good-natured hospitality, the Boer stood aside and allowed the stranger to
plunder rich treasure hidden in his mountains. But, when, encouraged by this for-
bearance, the stranger insolently proclaimed himself lord of the soil, when he had
worn out the Boer's patience with ever-increasing greed and new demands, then, at
last, the Boer woke to the danger which threatened his independence, his liberty
and his life. He resolved sternly that he would not let the stranger rob him
of all that he holds most sacred, but that he would once and for all make a
mighty effort to rid his country of these parasites. But now a mighty power
is incensed against him. In London, the Stock Exchange, which buys where it
cannot command, is an important factor in politics. And so regiment after
regiment crosses the sea to fight the Boer:
THAT IS THE WAR.
With veiled face and a moan of anguish, idyllic poetry flees before the din
of battle. Will she return, now that the rude dust of arms has subsided? Or will
the hyenas of greed, the Cosmopolitan Parvenus, reign in the Land of the Lions?
What heroes our stalwarts proved themselves! All the world rings with
their praises. Surely, surely, it cannot be that all this heroism will be in vain;
that the whirlpool of might will draw them down into its black abyss !
Nations gazed with throbbing hearts upon the tragedy. Anxiously they
watched the struggle; and to the love and sympathy of our kindred these
sketches are dedicated. However imperfect and incomplete the picture, it shall
attempt to place before them in a true light the iniquity of this unhappy war
and to do justice to our brave brothers, who laid down their lives gladly
that their children might be free.
Would to God that the author of these sketches might be able to revise
and complete them on the soil of a happy South Africa!
P. A. NIERSTRASZ,
Managing Director "Neclerland" Publishing Co.
HOW SOUTH AFRICA ROSE TO HER PLACE
AMONG THE NATIONS.
MAJOR-GENERAL ALBERT PFISTER.
WHILE the north coast of Africa figures in history from the earliest
times of antiquity, the interior and South remained long unexplored.
Imagination, however, was busy with the Dark Continent, and it is
needless to say that, in that age of ignorance and superstition, the most
extraordinary fables prevailed regarding the land and people. Till then the
adventurers had kept to the coast; but science came to their assistance
with her new discoveries, and at length they ventured out upon the open
sea. During those years, Christopher Columbus, with the help of Spain,
was able to carry out his long-cherished plans, and started on his voyage
of discovery to find a western passage to India. The Portuguese tried 1>ias u rouu(is j*«
ii 11 i it ji • t» i i southern-most
to reach the same goal by the south and east, and in this way Bartholomeo point otAfrua
Dias arrived at the southern promontory in the commencement of i4 86. 141
The King of Portugal named it the Cape of Good Hope, for the dream
of an ocean-route to the Far East seemed about to be realized. The Cape,
as well as the whole of South Africa, was looked upon as a Portuguese
possession. But no one troubled about the new acquisition, and it became No
Man's Land. At the end of the sixteenth century, Spain and Portugal
were no longer the great Powers that they once had been, but had handed
over their commercial supremacy to England and the Netherlands. In
several Dutch towns, and especially in Amsterdam, the trade in Indian
spices became very important.
In March 1602, the Dutch East India Company first came into existence. ^5"^,%^,
It used to take many months to reach India by way of the Cape. Traders India company
were always face to face with the danger that water and provisions might
fail them before they came to the end of their journey. A station midway,
where they might obtain water, vegetables and fresh meat, would be a
most desirable acquisition. The Cape — No Man's Land — provided such
a station. About 30 miles north of the Cape, they found a bay, providing
a convenient landing-place. Here they laid the foundations of Cape Town;
from here path-tinders and pioneers started to explore the interior, bringing
the surrounding country, where the Hottentots, Namaquas and Kaffirs were
waging constant warfare, under subjection and cultivation. Religious and
political persecution, want of elbow-room in the Old Country, love of adventure:
these are the great factors in founding and filling colonies.
van Riebeek The first large batch of emigrants landed at the Cape in 1652, under
Cape: a i652. e the charge of the Dutch naval surgeon, Jan Anthonie van Riebeek. A gardener
and his wife Annetje are specially mentioned as having been the first
to put spade in South African soil. Soon other colonists followed, settled
The colonists near Capetown and planted wheat, maize, tobacco and vegetables. To
call themselves F in 1 i n 1 1 1 -n
"BoerB." distinguish themselves trom the townspeople, they called themselves Boers :
farmers or planters. In the aggregate, however, they called themselves Burghers
or I 'rije Burgers.. Up to this time, the colonists had come from Holland, but
immigration of soon Germans and Danes joined them. Then came the Revocation of the Edict
1H88-16S9. of Nantes, and 150 fugitives found a new home on African soil. The
new-comers did not arrive empty handed, but brought with them many
precious gifts, invaluable to the young community. Not the least amongst
these was vine-culture. Soon the different nationalities amalgamated,
split up again into groups forming small communities, and pressed forward
into the interior, subjugating the natives and cultivating the wilderness.
Meanwhile, Spanish and Portuguese adventurers, driven by the greed of
gold, had crossed the Atlantic and settled in the New World. They had
not the stamina of the hardy settlers at the Cape. More than half of
them became merged in the native population and soon ceased to be the
dominant race. A hardier race, strong and resolute like ourselves, the
English Puritans, had settled in New England, during the ten years of
South African colonization. These two groups of colonists, those of the
Cape and New England, developed, as was but natural, into a powerful
white aristocracy. Both possessed in the highest degree stern resolution
and the governing instinct of the Germanic races. The passionate love of
liberty was equally strong in either.
When success crowned the efforts of the hard-working colonists, and
their circumstances became easier, the population increased rapidly, and it
became necessary to penetrate further and further inland, and to drive
back the natives who opposed them. Small towns and villages sprang
up to the east and north of Cape Town. The impulse to trek onward
and ever onward impelled them to the same extent as it did their cousins
in North America towards the Far West. In the year 1786, a great number
Foundation of of colonists crossed the Karoo, founded the town of Graaf Reinet, and
itm* opened up the great Fish River on the northern boundary of the Colony.
Their chief mistress at the Cape, the Dutch East India Company,
watched their progress with anything but sympathetic eyes. She looked
upon the Boers as her subjects, who were not so difficult to govern
so long as she kept them crowded together in a small station like Cape
Town. But she had to realize, and she did not like it, that the young
community had reached maturity, and that it would no longer remain attached
to her apron-strings.
They had passed through invigorating perils with wild beasts and savages,
and become what thev were: strong, virtuous, self-reliant. Such men as
they cannot be kept in subjection. Again and again they felt that
they had good cause of complaint against the tyrannical laws of the
Company. In the year 1795, following the example of the seceding states of The Boon of
North America, the Boers of (iraaf Reinet declared their independence, not, deoure their
indeed, of Holland, but of the Dutch East India Company. By the end f gJ e P eodence
the eighteenth century, Holland began to collect troops in Cape Colony:
in all, three regiments: the Swiss, Wurtemberg and Luxemburg Regiments.
The happy isolation of Cape Colony had come to an end. She began to
take her place amongst the maritime nations, for her geographical position
was a most important one. Over 100 ships entered Cape Town harbour
during the year. The population was 15,000, of whom 6,000 were foreigners.
The principal trade with India had fallen into the hands of England.
The flourishing Cape Colony would be an exceedingly valuable acquisition
to her; and accordingly, when the French Republic in 1795 drove the House of
Orange from Holland and founded the Batavian Republic, England claimed
the right of succession to her foreign possessions. In the autumn of
1795, an English fleet appeared off Cape Town, landed troops and took
formal possession. After the Peace of Amiens, in 1803, the Colony Avas
handed back to Holland. But this peace, after all, was only an armistice,
and, when the war recommenced in 1805, England retained the Colony. More
troops were landed, and the Dutch were signally defeated at Blauwberg, on the the 8 Dutch 6 and
8th of January 1806. England obtained the whole Colony almost without a ta . k „ es possession
J . ~ . „. J TT . . of ( ajie Colon] :
struggle, and the possession was ratified by the Congress of Vienna in 1815. isor.
Under the sovereignty of England, the life of the Boers, as well as
that of the amalgamated colonists of different nations, assumed new pro-
portions, not merely on account of the English government, though
that brought many improvements with it, but on account of the innovations
which followed in its train. In the effort at expansion in foreign countries, it
folloAvs that the colonists must come into frequent collision with the natives
When these natives are well armed and naturally brave, the task becomes
a formidable one , and strong measures have to be put in requisition to
acquire and retain new territories. Fierce enmity between conqueror and
conquered is the natural result. Add racial antagonism to the above, and
it is easilv understood with what difficulties the pioneer in a new land , ,
» . Antagonism
has to contend. Now it is to the interest of a government that a colonist between natives
should remain a useful, obedient subject, and, in order that he may not an
outgrow this usefulness and become a power instead of a "means towards
the end," the government is tempted to a certain extent to uphold the
native interest. To do so creates a counterpoise to the growth of the colonist,
which latter may become a danger to a weak government. That this is
so was proved by the action of the Government in North America, when,
during the revolt of the seceding states, in 1775, they found a powerful
ally in the Indians, who destroyed the farms of the settlers and committed
the most outrageous cruelties. The colonists at the Cape were forbidden
to carry arms; consequently, they were quite unable to protect themselves
efficiently against the predatory propensities of the natives. But what
embittered them and offended them more than anything else was the fact that
the police force was made up of Hottentots, a race which they considered
inferior to their own slaves. To the free Africander, high-mettled and
impatient of control, this appeared an unendurable insult.
A new grievance arose. As early as the seventeenth and eighteenth cen-
turies, England held a monopoly of the slave-trade. We learn from so
reliable a source as the English historians themselves that it was of
all their trades the most lucrative and important. The English traders flooded
the colonies with slaves, in spite of the remonstrances of the settlers, as
was shown in North America. During the Avars that followed on 1792,
.almost the entire foreign trade passed into English hands; consequently, the
importance of the slave-trade assumed a secondary consideration. Besides,
important voices in Parliament were raised against it, and it had, of
necessity, suffered greatly after the secession of the American Colonies.
In 1808, a law was passed suppressing the slave-trade, and a certain sum
was voted as compensation to planters and farmers. The number of slaves
owned by the Boers was estimated at 35,000, the greater part of whom
were imported by English traders, and the rest made up of Hottentots,
Kaffirs and other natives,
arifsand uie° n Up to this time, nobody had troubled about the religion of the native;
Boers - but, under the British sovereignty, the London Missionary Society became
exceedingly active. In India, where politics and religion go hand in
hand, discretion is exacted from the missionaries, and thus an effective
curb is put on extravagant religious zeal; but here, where they met
with no resistance, except the reserve of the Boer and his strict supervision
and discipline over his domestic slaves, they soon outran all discretion
and became a most disturbing influence. Add to these conditions the
Boer's objection to the English language, and you get a fair idea of the
opposition and even enmity that was bound to be the result of the situation
In order to increase their importance as against the Boers, and to ingratiate
themselves with the authorities, the missionaries eagerly lent an ear
to any idle gossip, in some instances going so far as to accuse the Boers
of the most heartless cruelties towards the slaves: needless to say, without
the slightest foundation. A great number of men and women were brought
befor the circuit assizes. The charges were proved to be silly stories with
no foundation on fact. But, for long years afterwards, colonists spoke of
the indignity to which they had been subjected by being brought to trial
on such flimsy pretexts, and these sessions come to be known as the u black
circuit." Impressions are apt to be written in stone instead of sand
when they fall upon natures of such depth as that of the Boer. And so
it happened that he could never rid himself of the belief that the mission-
aries were spies and "unjust counsellors," where his interests were con-
cerned, and that the Government always sided with them and always
to his disadvantage. The mischief which these exaggerations, not to use
a harder and less euphonious term, did in England is only now being realized.
a'BoeTrisi" ° f ^ ie Boers °f Graaf Reinet were possessed of the most invincible passion
by England, for independence. They rose in the year 1815. The punishment meted out
bioodshedTi8ifi. to the rebels was unduly severe and exceedingly injudicious. The executions
of six of them were carried out in a particularly cruel way, on the 9th
of March 1817, at Slachter's Nek. This bloodshed helped to raise a
barrier between the two nations, which will not easily be passed this side
of Judgment Day. It had the same effect on the Boers as the so-called
Boston slaughter on the Americans.
It became evident to the Governor that a counterpoise was needed to
keep the Boers in check; consequently, English emigrants were in every way
encouraged to settle at the Cape. At the close of the year 1820, 5,000
new colonists had settled in South Africa. No doubt this influx of
Britons was one of the chief reasons why, after 1825, English became
the official language, although the old colonists had been allowed to
retain theirs when they were handed over to England in 1806. The consequences
of this measure were serious for the Boer, as, not being conversant with the
English language, he was handicapped in defending his rights or watching
over his interests. si££?i£i.
The most serious innovation occurred during the year 1834, namely, the
abolition of slavery. Parliament passed a bill to the effect that all slaves
should be liberated and their owners compensated. The Boers did not
seriously oppose this measure; all they insisted on was a fair compensation.
But the compensation was made payable in England. Fiscal matters were
then managed in a peculiar way, to put it mildly, and so it happened
that the middlemen were able to put large sums into their pockets,
while the Boers received little or nothing. In many cases, those who
had formerly been, if not wealthy, at least well-to-do, were threatened
with absolute ruin. Still they were compelled to liberate their slaves.
But for agriculture and for the breding of cattle native labour was absolutely
necessary in this semi-tropical climate. This labour being set free , the
country was overrun with idlers and vagabonds. The sixth Kaffi
The most important of the so-called Kaffir wars broke out in 1834 War: 1834 " 1835 -
to 1835, shortly after the abolition of slavery. The Kaffirs crossed the
borders in thousands, robbing, burning and murdering. Sir Benjamin
d'Urban drove them back with the assistance of the Boers. But this did
not please the home Government. D'Urban was recalled, and the tract of
country restored to the Kaffirs. Not only that, but the colonists had
to pay the cost of the war , their complaints being entirely ignored.
These flagrant injustices: Hottentot police; the bloodshed at Slachter's
Nek; the official introduction of the English language: the abolition of„ . , ..
, O O O ' .. Part of the
slavery; the partisanship displayed in the Kaffir wars: all these irritated Boers leave
the colonists to the utmost. Nothing remained but to give way, to trek torf; others'
onward into a distant countrv, far from English territory, where the Boer" ma ,V nat , OM
. i ,. ",. , ° . - • . . CapeTown: 1836.
might live as he chose to live and manage his domestic matters m a
workmanlike and practical way. In their minds, no doubt, was the
Biblical example, where the oppressed of old set out for the Promised
Land to seek and find freedom.
A part of the Boer Colony, who had reconciled themselves to English
law, remained in Cape Colony. So, from 1836, we have had two kinds
of Boers: those who chose to sit still at Cape Town and those free Boers
who were on the trek, but always hampered and persecuted by the British.
New-comers from Cape Colony joined the great caravan till it numbered The "Great
10,000 souls. Two small divisions, under van Rensburg and Trichardt, trekked
northwest, but were nearly all murdered by the Kaffirs; the larger part passed
over the Drakensberg, into the flowering garden of Natal. The leader of the
Boers, Piet Retief, had obtained a formal concession of the country from the
chief of the Kaffirs, Dingaan, who, however, treacherously attacked the caravan,
cutting down the leaders and many women and children. This bloodshed was
committed on the spot where now stands the village of Weenen, or "Tears."
Boer victory Tlie Boers concentrated, and gained a complete victory over the Zulus
over the Zulu ^ .
Kaffirs on Din -on the 16th of December 1888. This victory is celebrated every
no-'miMv'' L888. y ear on "Dingaan's Day." Pietermaritzburg was built on the spot on
which it was won. The hopes of the Boers centred in this prospect of a
new and safe home. Here they laid the foundation of their Republic. Only
a few years afterwards, in 1842, the English Government took forcible
possession of the territory. Again the Boers took up their pilgrim's staff
and wandered forth in search of freedom, under the leadership of Andries
Boers found the Pretorius. They re-crossed the Drakensberg. Some remained there, founding
t >rangeFreeState " ^ . .
uiuior Pretorius: the Orange Free State, between the Vaal and the Orange River, while
others crossed the Vaal. But they were not left there in peace for long.
On the 29th of August 1848, the Boers, consisting of 600 men, were attacked
England bv an English force of 1200 and beaten at Boomplaats. England annexed
annexes the •' ° „ „ r °
orange Free the Orange rree otate.
state: 1848. p Qr a ^j^ time, Pretorius, on whose head a price, was set, started swith
four republics part of the wandering Boers to explore an unknown land toward the
in the Transvaal. north They j oined the Boerg already settled j n t he Transvaal, and
conveiTtVonaso^' founded four republics: Potschefstroom, Lijdenburg, Utrecht and Zoutpansberg.
The Transvaal p or a time, English attention was diverted from South Africa by
government. the course of events of the Crimean War, and she agreed to the Sand
River Convention of 17 January 1852, granting self-government to the Boers
conv"en°ionT wno ^ a & settled across the Vaal. The only thing insisted on was that there
1 | 54 h' a o ' t0n ° rny should be no slavery. During the Crimean War, in 1854, the Orange Free
Free state. ° State also obtained self-government by the Bloemfontein Convention.
The four Trans- The long desired goal seemed to have been attained at last! In
beconie K one bhcs 1857 the four republics of the Transvaal became one under the title
south African f the South African Republic. The first President was young
Republic: I80S. . . l J &
Martmus Wessel Pretorius.
The Boers were divided into several sections consisting of those who
had quietly stayed in Cape Colony under British sovereignty; of those
emigrants who had stayed in Natal, also under British government; and,
lastly, of the free people of the Orange Free State, having Bloemfontein
for their capital, and of the South African Republic, with Pretoria for
their capital. England still continued to interfere with the internal expansion
of both Republics; and the cultivation of the land, educational measures,
and the hostile attitude of the Kaffirs greatly delayed their progress.
d^amom? fields Diamonds were discovered near Kimberley, in the Orange Free
near Kimberiey : State, in 1869. Attracted by greed, tens of thousands flowed to the
into 'English spot, the majority of whom were English. The right of the Free State to
this valuable land was disputed, and she was compelled to relinquish it in
1876, receiving very inadequate compensation from England.
In order to obtain a road to the coast, the South African Republic
annexed the land at Delagoa Bay, which was unclaimed. But Portugal
insisted that she had taken possession of it in 1546. The President of
the French Republic was chosen as arbitrator; he decided in favour of
Portugal in 1875.
Battle of the Serious dangers were added to all this trouble. The Kaffir Chief Secucuni
vith the Kaffir invaded the north of Natal. T. F. Burgers, who succeeded the popular
Chief Secucuni :
Pretorius as President, marched against Secucuni in 1876. The Boers destroyed
one of his forts, but were not strong enough to complete his punishment,
iind were compelled to turn hack. The treasury was empty, debts heavy,
and there were no means of getting money; besides, the Boers were divided
against themselves. The confusion in all parts of the South African
Republic was indescribable. Meanwhile. Europe had given England a free
hand. It began to be rumoured that there was gold in the Transvaal,
and that President Burgers could not make himself obeyed. The time
had come for England, it was said , to assert herself once and for
all: the Boers themselves were in favour of her doing so. Indeed, the
clever English agent succeeded in obtaining the signature of several
hundred townspeople who were in favour of British supremacy. On the En g land
strength of this document, Sir Theophilus Shepstone, on the 12th of Soutb African
April 1877, proclaimed the incorporation of the South African Republic Republic: 187T
in the colonial possessions of England. British troops garrisoned Pretoria.
In vain the Republic sent envoy after envoy to London, Paul
Kruger among their number, to protest against this arbitrary proceeding,
this incorporation based merely on the signaure of a number of quite
unimportant Boers. The war with Cetevvayo supplied England with a
pretext for sending more and more troops into the Transvaal. Liberty
seemed gone. No representations could shake the ingenious belief in England
that she had the reversion of these valuable countries, if the proprietors
were unable to hold their own with or without foreign assistance.
Although the English rulers were liberal in promises to compensate
the Boers for their loss of liberty with self-government and so forth, the
position in the Transvaal soon became unendurable, by reason of the
despotism of the rulers, who seemed to take a special delight in humiliating
their subjects whenever occasion offered. The same consequences that
followed a similar policy of exasperation, more than a century earlier,
in North America and in Switzerland, now made themselves felt in the The Boers , lf
Transvaal. Despair broke down all barriers. A national meeting was held.* 1 " ! ransvaal
on the 13th of December 1880, in the remote plain of Paardekraal, establish their
near Krugersdorp, which resolved upon the restoration of the South Repub
African Republic, and appointed Martinus Pretorius, Paul Kruger and
Pieter Joubert as provisional administrators. More and more trusted
Boers joined, and, on the 16th of December, "'Dingaan's Day," the celebrated
day which will for ever be green in the memory of Boers yet unborn,
the day when the Zulus were so gloriously defeated, a large gathering, with
hands uplifted to Heaven and hearts throbbing with heroic resolve, swore
that they would set their country free once more, or die in its defence.
In order to erect a monument to the vows that thrilled their hearts,
each Boer took up a stone and solemnly added it to the gradually growing
heap. To me there is something ineffably grand in this simple, yei
powerful, display of the sentiment that filled each soul to over-flowing:
it corresponds with the splendid, virile character of the men.
The Boers collected, 4,000 strong, on the road from Pretoria to Natal.
near Heidelberg. Their plan was to cutoff the English garrisons, and especially
the road to Natal. The southern boundary was of no importance, the Orange
Free State being neutral.
The first victory was gained as early as the 20th of December 1880, at
Bronkhorst Spruit, under Frans Joubert, when the English garrison at
Lijdenburg attempted to join the troops stationed at Pretoria.
The British found themselves in an ugly position. It was not safe
to withdraw troops from Cape Colony, on account of the disaffection
which existed there, and the army at home was not ready, so they could
count only on India for reinforcements. With a force consisting of 4,500 men,
General Colley attempted to invade the Transvaal from Natal. He marched
through the pass of Laing's Nek. A thousand Boers lay in ambush and
defeated the British, inflicting severe losses, on the 28th of January
1881. The English were again repulsed at Ingogo River. Without
allowing himself to be discouraged, the general resolved to attack the Boer
lager at Laing's Nek from Majuba Hill. The British succeeded in
gaining the summit during the night of the 26th of February, 1881.
of°the V BoVr9 ° ry When the sun rose, the Boers saw that they must either retreat under
°r e L the t. B ^ ti , s , h the most difficult conditions, or storm the hill. They stormed. They climbed
at Maiuba Hill : ' , .. J , J m
1881. the three steep sides of the hill with surprising energy, and, inspired with
a noble rage, fell upon the British division and drove it off with heavy losses.
In all these encounters, the Boers seem to have had no artillery. Their
never-failing rifles did all the work, and their losses were very small;
but, in the measure as they were victorious, so were they also humble:
their jubilations consisted of a fervent prayer of thanksgiving to the
God of Battles, and their pity was expressed in their careful attention to
the wounded of the enemy of their country.
The victories gained by these death-defying farmers made an extraordinary
impression in England. Public opinion became divided. One party insisted
that a large army should be sent to punish the rebels; the other
doubted if England would find it pay to continue the war. And Mr. Gladstone,
the Prime Minister, had the courage to join the peace party.
peace with En g - Ti ie treaty was signed on the 3rd of August 1881, and was called
land ; Pretoria . J p _ lm
convention: the Pretoria Convention. In this treaty, the Transvaal accepted the
supremacy of England concerning all foreign relations, and agreed to the
presence of an English resident in Pretoria, thereby acknowledging England's
suzerainty. England on her side annulled the annexation of 1877 and
declared the South African Republic to be absolutely free and independent
Paul Kruger m } 10me affairs. The Triumvirate of Kruger, Joubert and Pretorius was
chosen President „.. , . .. .. r> r» 1 t^-
of the new free followed, ml883, by the presidency of Paul Kruger.
Republic "T^. This treaty led to serious difficulties in the new Republic. Kruger, with
Du Toit and Smit, went to London, at the end of 1883, to try to put matters
on a right footing. They succeeded, on the 27th of February 1884, in
London Con- concluding the London Convention, whereby England agreed that the
vention annuls . ~ J o p . .
the suzerainty: Republic should be bound to the consent of the Queen only in its treaties
with foreign States. At the same time, England recalled her resident from
Pretoria. The suzerainty was abolished. In return, the Republic agreed to
a reconstruction of the boundary in the west in favour of England. By
garrisoning Bechuanaland and the desert of Kalahari, England placed a
w T edge between the possessions of Germany and the South African Republic.
It was to England's interest to cut off the Boers from the sea on the east
and from German South- West Africa in the west.
Discovery of After the London Convention of 1884, the success of the Boer Republics
v£-. d " fi ! lds in j seemed to be assured. And so it might have been, were Africa not the land
Witwatersrand: • in • i n
1886. Acause of of surprises. Sometime before attention had been called to traces of gold. In
England™ 1 1886, the rich gold-fields of Witwatersrand were discovered, and it soon
became evident that the Transvaal was the richest gold country in the world.
With surprising rapidity, the gold fever spread among foreign invaders and
attracted large numbers of Outlanders to the Transvaal. The English
element was predominant, not so much on account of its numbers, as
of its constant pretences to constitute itself the leading power in South
Africa, thereby threatening Boer interests.
The laws of the South African Republic were not prepared to grapple
with this influx of exacting Outlanders of English extraction. To give
them the franchise meant ruin. The authorities decided, in 1 89*3, that they
should be granted full burgher rights only after a residence of fourteen
years. By that time it was hoped to secure the exclusiveness of the
Republic. Unfortunately, it had already been lost by other means: the railroads.
In 1895, the line between Pretoria and Delagoa Bay was thrown open to
traffic; other lines went before or followed it. Johannesburg became the most
important city in South Africa and, at the same time, a centre of English interests.
Cecil Rhodes, the son of a Hertfordshire clergyman, amalgamated the dia-
mond quarries of Kimberley with the powerful De Beers Company in 1881.
He had founded the Chartered Company in 1889 and taken possession of
the land in the interior as far as the Equator. He rose to be Prime Minister
of Cape Colony, and no doubt ambition whispered in his willing ear many a
fanciful dream of a country stretching from the mouth of the Nile to the
Cape, where his influence would be paramount, and where the fabulous riches
of the land would be under his control. Already he was lord and master
of the Kimberley diamond quarries. Why should not the gold of Witwaters-
rand, together with Johannesburg, be brought under his, and therefore
under England's, dominion? All that was necessary was to tell abundant
lies about the Boers; to represent them as hindering technical and
industrial progress; and to surprise the world with an accomplished fact,
a i-onji d'Etat in the mining interest.
The Chartered Company had a force of its own in the territories north ^SuitaM the
and west of the Transvaal. At Christmas 1895, Cecil Rhodes assembled Jameson Raid; it
800 of these men under Dr. Jameson at Mafeking, for an invasion into m
the Transvaal in the direction of Johannesburg, where a number of
conspirators, who had secretly armed, were to join and assist in the
downfall of the Republic, But the wary Boers were ready for them.
They waylaid the freebooters at Krugersdorp and forced them to surrender
unconditionally in the first days of January 1896. President Kruger showed
a noble clemency in merely handing the peace-breakers over to England.
However a different view was taken of this affair in England. Public
opinion ranged itself without reservation on the side of the men who,
it was said, were ready to do and dare for the honour of England, for
the expansion of British supremacy, and for the opening up of new
sources of wealth, as other daring Englishmen had done before them in
various parts of the world, especially in India. At the head of the
war party was Mr. Chamberlain, the Colonial Minister. The reasoning intrigue* a^inst
powers of England has lost their sense of proportion. Arguing from the Transvaal -
their easy victories over a few coloured races, they concluded that the
oppression of the Boer would be an equally easy matter. They lived to
learn their mistake.
After the Jameson Raid , the intrigues of the Outlanders became
even more formidable. The South African League was founded and
agitation kept alive by English capitalists and newspapers. Besides, all
sorts of complaints were lodged with the Transvaal Government and
disseminated by Mr. Chamberlain: complaints against the railway tariff;
the dynamite concession; the liquor laws with regard to natives; the pass
law; gold robberies; insecurity of life and property, and so forth. The
universal cure for all these grievances was to be found in full burgher
rights for the Outlanders. Mr. Chamberlain became the very willing medium
of all these complaints, sent note after note complaining that the internal
administration of the Transvaal was not in accordance with the Convention
of 1884, and insisted on its being altered.
The Boers were warned; they knew what must follow. They prepared
themselves for a serious emergency, and collected arms and ammunition.
Cape Colony possessed in Lord, then Sir Alfred, Milner a High Commissioner
after the heart of Mr. Chamberlain and the English Imperialists. In
FruitiessConfer- j une j 899, he met President Kruger in Bloemfontein in order to demand
ence at Bloeiu- 1 • m
fontein between full burgher rights for all Outlanders in the Transvaal after five
Milne 6 /: * M9. years' residence. This concession , if it were made, would create a
serious danger to the safety of the Republic, which was increased by
the fact that the British Outlanders, and especially the inhabitants of Jo-
hannesburg, had petitioned the Queen for full burgher rights in the
South African Republic. Kruger was quite ready to meet the concessionists,
as far as was consistent with the interests of his country. Every
Outlander in Johannesburg, without being naturalized, was granted an
immediate vote for the Town Council. After two years' residence, he could,
if he chose, become naturalized, when he would receive his vote for the
Second Volksraad, to w T hose jurisdiction the mining, postal, telegraph and
traffic interests were subject. Twelve years' residence after naturalization
gave him full burgher rights, including a vote for the First Volksraad,
election of President, etc. These twelve years were, in 1899, reduced to
five, which, added to the two previous years of residence before
naturalization, made seven years, instead of fourteen as formerly.
However, the English Government insisted on five years. Following on this,
Mr. Chamberlain formulated a new demand, namely England's right of
suzerainty, which had been anulled in 1884.
tum* 6 " October When the Boers realized that they had to deal not with just , but
1899 - with arbitrary demands, their long-suffering patience was at last exhausted,
especially as their ultimatum, concerning the withdrawal of reinforcements
Commencement from the borders, had been contemptuously ignored in London. During the
Natai°? iioc- m evening of the 11th of October 1899, the Boers crossed the frontier of
tober 1899. Natal: those men of steel, whose duty it was to show that they were
worthy descendants of their heroic fathers; that the hard school of invigorating
danger and purifying fire through which they had passed had sown
and fostered in them that spirit of unquenchable independence which
only death itself could subdue.
I. If your Queen only knew 3
II. Manners and Character of the Boers 7
III. The Boer in War 23
IV. Com Paul and Tante Sauna 37
The Transvaal National Anthem 44
V. President M. T. Steijn 51
The Orange Free State National A nth em 54
VI. Dr. W. J. Leyds 61
VII. A. D. W. Wolmarans 67
VIII. Cornells Wessels 73
IX. Ahraham Fischer 77
X. Schalk Willem Burger 81
XI. F. W. Reitz 87
XII. The late Commandant General P. J. Jouhert ... 95
XIII. General P. A. Cronje" 105
XIV. Commandant General Louis Botha 115
XV. Chief Commandant General Christian De Wet 129
XVI. General J. H. De la Rey 141
XVII. General Ben Viljoen 149
XVIII. The late Captain Danie Theron 155
XIX. Judge J. B. M. Hertzog 163
XX. J. C. Smuts 167
XXI. The three best-known Commanders in the Colony: General S. G. Maritz,
the late Commandant G. J. Scheepers, General G. H. Kretzinger . . 172
XXII. South African Wives and Daughters 179
Index of Places 189
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
1. Presidents S. J. P. Kruger and M. T. Steijn Frontispiece
2. Views of Zoutpansberg 3
3. The Conference of Teachers of the South- African Kepublic: July 1897 ... 7
4. A Boer School at Visschershoek 12
5. A Boer School at Schietfontein 14
6. Inspection of a Boer Commando 23
7. The German Corps before the Battle of Elandslaagte 24
8. A Commando bound for Colenso crossing the Klip River 28
9. Boers in fighting line 32
10. President Kruger and Mrs. Kruger 37
11. Views of Heidelberg 38
12. President Kruger and President Steijn addressing the Boers in the Market Hall
at Kroonstad 4U
13. Coins of the South African Republic 46
14. President M. T. Steijn 51
15. Views of Bloemfontein 52
16. President Steijn in the Laager before Ladysmith 56
17. Dr. W. J. Leyds 61
18. Mr. A. D. W. Wolmarans 67
19. Mr. C. Wessels 73
20. The Wessels Family 75
21. Mr. A. Fischer . 77
22. Mr. Schalk Willem Burger 81
23. Views of Lijdenburg 82
24. Mr. F. W. Reitz 87
25. Mr. L. J. S. Malan 89
26. The late Commandant General P. J. Joubert 95
27. General Joubert at Breakfast in Laager before Ladysmith . . 96
xxvi LIST OF [ILLUSTRATIONS.
1 o liter
28 Bursting of the Dam of the Klip River near Ladysmith . 100
29. General P. A. Cronj^ 105
80. The late Colonel Comte de Villebois-Mareuil 107
31. General Cronje* before Kimberley 108
32. Burghers crossing the Vaal River 110
33. Commandant General Louis Botha 115
34. Commandant General Louis Botha and his Staff at Colenso . . 116
85. Boers Outposts near Colenso, on the Tugela River 119
36. The Heroes of Spion Kop 122
37. Outposts of Boers at van Reenen's pass 124
38. Chief Commandant General Christian De Wet 129
39. Commandant J. H. Olivier 133
40. Heliograph Corps of the South African Republic and Field Battery at Colesberg 134
41. General J. H. De la Rey 141
42. Major Albrecht 145
43. General Ben Viljoen 149
44. The late Captain Danie Theron 155
45. Danie Theron's Scouts on the Look-out 156
46. Judge J. B M. Hertzog 163
47. State-Attorney J. C. Smuts 167
48. Views of Cape Town 168
49. General S. G. Maritz 173
50. Maritz' Scouts on the Look-out .... 174
51. A typical Boer Girl 179
52. General W. Kolbe 181
53. Mrs. Louis Botha 182
ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE TEXT.
1. An Ambulance Train 5
2. An old Boer Homestead in the Interior of the Transvaal 8
3. Boer Travelling Waggons 9
4. A typical Transvaal Boer 10
5. Kroonstad and views of the Valsch River 11
6. Central Hall of the State Museum at Pretoria ' 16
7. The new Building of the State Girls' School at Pretoria 17
8. Front view of the State Gymnasium at Pretoria 18
9. The Class Room for free-hand drawing in the State Gymnasium at Pretoria . . 19
10. A Private House at Pretoria 20
11. A Private House at Pretoria 20
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. xxvii
12. A typical Boer family .21
13. Colonel A. H. Schiel 24
14. Arrival of a Transport at Elandslaagte .... .24
15. Gunners of the Transvaal State Artillery 26
16. Glimpses of Boer Camp Life: Arrival of Supplies
17. Glimpses of Boer Camp Life: Receipt of Intelligence 30
18. Glimpses of Boer Camp Life: Resting ... ;i
19. Glimpses of Boer Camp Life: A Field Cornet's Tent . . 32
20. Three Generations at the War :;.,
21. Paardekraal, near Krugersdorp . [2
22. The Paardekraal Monument 43
23. President Kruger on the Verandah of his Bouse, at Pretoria . . 48
24. The Doppers Church at Pretoria 49
25. President Steijn exhorting his Burghers at Smaldeel ... .58
26. Commandant P. Fourie 59
27. The Government Buildings at Pretoria 62
28. Law Courts at Pretoria 63
29. Daspoort near Pretoria 64
30. The New Arcadia Bridge at Pretoria . . 65
31. Loading up Ammunition for the Transvaal Artillery 68
32. Schalk Willem Burger . 69
33. Departure of the Hollander Corps from Pretoria: 6 Octoher 1899 70
34. Church Square at Pretoria 71
35. A destroyed Boer Farm T'.t
36. The late General Kock with his Staff at Elandslaagte 84
37. General Tobias Smuts , 85
38. Departure of the German Commando from Pretoria 90
39. Burgomaster Schutte of Johannesburg witnessing the Departure of the Burglar-:
4 November 1899 91
40. The Johannesburg Police off to the Front: 26 October 1899 92
41. Transvaal Howitzer made at Pretoria 93
42. General Joubert in his Tent before Ladysmith 98
43. Krupp Howitzers at work on the Platrand 99
44. The Artillery Barracks at Pretoria 100
45. Camp of the Field Telegraph Corps of the Transvaal Artillery 102
46. Rocket Signals 103
47. The restored Long Tom 107
48. English Prisoners of War from Paardeuberg 110
49. Transvaal Artillery Park 112
50. Glimpses of Boer Camp Life: Preparing Dinner LIS
51. The late General Lucas Mcijer 116
52. The Railway Bridge at Waschbank blown up with Dynamite 119
53. Another View of the Same .119
54. The late General Christian Botha 120
55. The Tugela Railway Bridge at Colenso destroyed: 16 November 1899 120
56. Boer Artillery engaged at Modderspruit (Nicholson's Nek) 121
57. Boer Artillery in action at Colenso: 15 December 1899 122
58. Viaduct in the Biggarsberg (Natal) wrecked by the Boers 124
59. The Railway Bridge over the Sunday River (Natal) repaired by the Transvaalers 124
60. General O. L. Beijers 126
xxviii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
61. Conference of Lord Kitchener and Louis Botha at Middelburg: 28 February 1900 126
62. Commandant General Louis Botha on horseback 127
63. The last Council of War near Bloemfontein 130
64. Armstrong Gun captured at Stormberg 133
65. Part of the destroyed Bridge over the Vet River .... 136
66. Another View of the Same 137
67. General De Wet, his secretary, some commandants and others at Potchefstroom 138
68. Military Attache's and their Adjudant, Mr. Fischer 139
69. Armoured Train captured at Kraaipan, 12 October 1899 .... .... 142
70. Transvaal Artillery with Howitzers at the Siege of Mafeking 143
71. Boer fort before Mafeking 145
72. General J. Kemp 147
73. Battle on the Tugela. Defence of Vaalkrans: 5 February 1900 150
74. Transvaal Mauser Bandoleer Waistcoat 151
75. Group of Boer Commandants an the Klip River, near Johannesburg .... 152
76. Ben Viljoen's Headquarters 153
77. Boer Cyclist 156
78. Tunnel near Laing's Nek wrecked by the Boers: South View 158
79. The Same: North View 159
80. Danie Theron's Scouts: At Dinner 160
81. Danie Theron's Scouts: Resting 161
82. Transvaal Maxim Gun 165
83. Commandant Fouche" of the Colony 171
84. The late Commandant G. J. Scheepers 176
85. General G. H. Kretzinger 177
86. A Transvaal Ambulance 182
87 and 88. Mrs. Berrett 184
89. The Father and the Bridegroom leaving for the War 185
90. Mrs. Lucas Meyer 186
91. The Family of General De Wet held as prisoners of war at Johannesburg . . 188
Maps of the Theatre of War:
1. The Cape Colony.
2. The late South African Republic and Orange Free State ... At end of book
' '-'/'': T ' : Mi
70UTPANSBERG, IN THE EXTREME NORTH OP THE TRANSVAAL. 1. A view of
Fort Hendrfna so-called after the wife of General Joubert, and tall* to res tram Maga os
turbulent tribe of Kaffirs. Magato has now been dead some years, and on the occasion of
the £s "expedition against his son, M'pefu, in 1898, the latter fled to R hoc esia. J and ^ Two
photographs showing a missionary station in the midst of this wild re won. Z outpansberg
is destined to become the granary of the Transvaal : it is an eminently fertile distnct.
HEROES OF THE BOER AVAR,
"IF YOUR QUEEN ONLY KNEW .
A T Bloemfontein, a Canadian officer
^* told me of one of his experiences
in the war. A collision had taken
place, in the Ladybrand District, with
a small Boer force, which, after a tough
contest, had been compelled to fall back
before superior numbers. The order
was given to burn down the house in the
neighbourhood of which the short fight
had taken place. The mounted in-
fantry trotted up to the house and
surrounded it, while the officer of the
patrol dismounted and knocked at the
door. A young married woman opened
it and appeared on the threshold with
a child in her arms. The general's
orders were repeated to her, and the
customary short interval was given her
to remove some small portion of her
belongings to a place of safety. At
first, the Africander was silent, appar-
ently not at once grasping the meaning
of the unexpected communication. It
is true, she had heard the firing, but
the fighting had taken place far from
her house. She wished to know why
her home was to be destroyed, and what
was to become of her; the officer was
only able to shrug his shoulders and
reply that he must execute the orders
of his superior. The woman grew
excited and defended her rights, her
hearth and home in a tremor of vehe-
ment and passionate words. But at
last she saw that she must bow before
savage force, and, with the words well-
ing up from the innermost recesses of
her heart, she cried, full of passionate
"Ah, if your Queen only knew what
was going on here if your Queen
That belief, that sympathetic belief
among the Africanders that all would
be different if Queen Victoria only
knew of the struggle and suffering in
South Africa was made manifest to me
time after time during the war. Every
man, woman and child respected the
old, grey Sovereign and placed a firm
and unshakable reliance in her sense
of justice. No disappointments, do
cruelties or acts of injustice committed
in her name could destroy that belief.
Far above their hatred for the Rand
capitalists remained their belief in her
whom they regarded as the lofty in-
carnation of the British sense of fairness.
IIKlinKS OK TIIK MORI! WAR.
When the war was fatally approach-
ing, but one hope remained to the
A fricanders: the Queen; and, starting
from Cape Town, a woman's movement
spread over all South Africa. As women,
they wanted to address the Gracious
Lady in England , to speak of the
suffering which would fall upon mothers
and children, to appeal to her sense
of pity and justice. Rapidly, enthusiastic-
ally, with a recrudescence of trust in
the future, the petitions were signed.
Even many men saw safety in the
movement, encouraged their wives to
take part in it, and thousands of signa-
tures were collected.
At the same time, the late General
Joubert, Vice-President of the Trans-
vaal, wrote his well-known open letter
to the Queen of England. To her, the
highest, he carried his plaint for his
people which was being wronged; to her
he wished to depict the land in ashes
and ruins, the Africanders in mourning
and tears. And he, the man who had
suffered, with his people, the perse-
cution of British ministers, believed,
as those women believed, that his last
appeal to the highest authority would
find a hearing in the royal palace. And
the words came straight from his
"It has perhaps never been brought
to Your Majesty's notice why these
people could not live peacefully in their
land of adoption and birth."
He felt that this must be so. She,
the noble Queen, could not have known of
all the suffering of the Africanders,
else she would never have permitted it;
and the enthusiasm of his letter sounded
powerfully and ferventl}':
"No, Your Majesty! Ever in sup-
plication to the Almighty, Who ruleth
over Kings and Princes, and inclineth
all to His great will, 1, Your Majesty's
humble petitioner, will never believe
that Your Majesty will suffer the sacred
rights of a weak, peace-loving people to
be violated in your name, and South
Africa to be cast into grief and mourn-
A few weeks later, one Sunday, it
was rumoured at Pretoria that Queen
Victoria was for peace. There were
numbers w r ho believed it at once, and
great joy arose. Many declared that
they had expected nothing else: "If the
Queen only knew." But tha next day
the papers appeared with long telegrams
announcing new dispatches of troops
to South Africa, foreshadowing new
demands to which it would be impossible
All further hopes of better things
were vain. The storm-clouds gathered
ominously: no ray of light remained.
Hatred and bitterness blazed out anew
against Milner, Chamberlain, Rhodes and
the many others who were bent upon
the death of African liberty. Still, the
idea remained unsullied which the
Afrikanders had formed of Queen
Victoria. The women's petition had
not been laid before her, Joubert's
open letter neither: thus argued the
many. "If the Queen only knew," she
would not have shown herself unrelent-
ing. Of course, there were others who
reasoned more clearly, who strove to
explain that Queen Victoria was above
all things a constitutional monarch and
had to bow before the will of the
people's representatives. But those
others were rarely in the majority.
Slowly, bitterly, cruelly, the opinion
of the minority became that of the
whole nation ; the savage warfare opened
all eyes to the horrible truth. But
every Africander, man or woman alike,
retained the conviction that England's
Queen did not approve of the war and
would certainly not have approved of
its conduct, "if the Queen only knew."
I have often tried to discover their
grounds for this belief; I have repeat-
edly held long conversations with Boers
and Boer women on the subject; but
I have never been able to discover the
cause. Call it childish, if you will, call
"IF YOUR QUEEN ONLY KNEW
it foolish: yet there was something noble,
something sympathetic in that conviction.
There was a pleasant familiarity, a
childlike truthfulness in the way in
which the Boers and their wives always
spoke of the "Old Woman." The words,
written down in cold blood, may appear
disrespectful when applied to a queen-
empress; many may think that they
perceive some intention of sneering at
the late Queen and her sreat age.
But you must have heard the tone
in which the words were uttered in
order to be able to judge of the
Besides, a sneer of that sort is
foreign to the Boer's nature; he
entertains too sacred a respect for women,
a respect which certainly does not de-
crease with the ascent of years. The
cause of this probably lies in the
Huguenot strain in his blood, of which
the chivalry has been preserved 1>\ the
Boer in so many noteworthy ways. And
on this basis it was easy to lead the
respect for the Queen of England to
the childlike ideal standpoint which it
occupied among the Africanders.
The Volksraad, in spite of all the
complications with England, would never
have thought of omitting to adjourn
on the 24th of May. That homage was
due to the aged Sovereign; even though
the whole of England had turned against
the Boers, they would not have deprived
her of this significant homage , the
homage which concerned her person,
venerable in its grey old age. That
was why the Volksraad adjourned on
the 24th of May 1899, on the eve of
the Bloemfontein Conference, and that
was why everyone thought the adjourn-
ment the most natural thing on earth:
"If the Queen only knew!"
ONE OF THE NETHERLANDS SOUTH AFRICAN KAILWA 1 ! COMPANY'S TEAINS TEAN£
FORMED INTO AN AMBULANCE-TRAIN. At the commencement ol the wax, the Nether-
lands South African Railway fitted up several railway-carriages for the conveyance of the
wounded with beds, drug-stores, and compartments for re-dl 'easing wounds. The last carriage
in particular, the large white ambulance-carriage, was a maBter-piece that did great credit to
the ingenuity of the railway-officials at l'rrtoria.
MANNERS AND CHARACTER OF THE BOERS.
SHORTLY after the outbreak of the
^ war , a lady of Africander birth
found herself in English company.
Motives of human curiosity prompted
a circle of well-bred Englishwomen to
form around her. An older lady,
hearing of this strange event, hurried
up, as fast as her dignity would permit
her , to gaze upon the marvel. No
sooner had she received a reply to her
eager "Where is she?" than she ex-
"But she's not a Boer ; she's not
And no one laughed but the Afri-
cander herself. A similar thought had
clearly occurred to all the rest.
A non-commissioned officer of the
Black Watch, the regiment which, at
Magersfontein, on the 11th of December
1899, so heroically and undauntedly
marched to certain death, was taken
up by the Boer ambulance and carried
to the field-hospital. The surgeon had
noticed that, during the progress
through the laager, the Highlander had
opened wide eyes each time a Boer
passed, on horseback or on foot, with
a polite "Good- day, doctor." So soon
as the man was comfortably in bed
and well cared-for, the surgeon asked
him the cause of his unconcealed sur-
prise, and was told that the soldier had
heard that the Boers were little stunted
men, who lived in caves and wore long
hair. It was the doctor's turn to be
surprised, and his amazement in no
way yielded to that of his patient.
During a sortie of the Ladysmith
garrison, a number of soldiers fell into
the hands of the Boers, who, as always,
treated them very humanely. The
majority of the prisoners, slow to
accept the inevitable, sulked and stood
aloof. One of them, however, kept up
a lively conversation with his guards.
Suddenly he asked:
"But where are the liners now?"
"I am a Boer,'' was the answer.
This Tommy refused to believe. A
man who talked English and who was
dressed like everyone else could not be
HEROES OF THE BOER WAR.
AN OLD BOER HOMESTEAD IN THE INTERIOR OF THE TRANSVAAL.
a Boer; and, when at last he was no
longer able to doubt the man's truth-
fulness, he exclaimed:
u But you're not a barbarian, you're
quite an Englishman!"
History does not relate that the Boer
took this as a compliment at that given
A whole series of humorous in-
stances might be quoted to show the
terrible misconception that prevailed
among the English touching the South
African Boers, and that, which is worse,
still exists. People seem unable to
comprehend the real nature and character
of the Transvaaler and Free Stater.
They seem unable to get away from
the meaning attached to the Dutch
word Boeren, and though the French-
man writes Boers, the German Buren
and the Englishman Boers, they all
continue to seek for some connection
between the Boeren and the paysans,
Bauern and peasants. The Boeren
is the name of the Africander people,
including those who do not practise
husbandry. Men like Louis and Christian
Botha, De la Rey, De Wet and Hertzog
are proud to call themselves Boers, just
as Presidents Steijn and Kruger take
pride in being so styled.
They are a handsome, sturdy race.
The men are tall and broad-shouldered.
Their features are often clean-cut, noble
and impressive and point in this distant
generation to its descent from the best
Huguenot families. Their hands are
small and. well-formed, their feet are
shapely. Their whole appearance is at
once impressive and sympathetic.
The Boer holds women in the
highest respect , is always eager to
show them every civility and ready
to defend them against insult: and this
from sheer chivalry, and not from love
At home he leads a placid, calm
and peaceful life. When, at five o'clock
MANNERS AND CHARACTER OF THE BOERS.
in the morning, the daylight swiftly
spreads over the open veldt and across
the firmament, he is already out of bed,
standing under his verandah, his trusty
pipe in his mouth. Slowly he walks
to the cattle-kraal and gives his in-
structions to the Kaffirs , who will
presently drive the animals on to the
veldt. He gives an eye to the pre-
parations, has a look round the stud-
farm and inspects the kitchen-garden.
It is breakfast- time: till then he has
only had a cup ot hot coffee. The
whole family sit down to breakfast, and,
when the meal is over, there is work
for all. There is butter or cheese to
make, darning- work to do, soap to be
prepared , an ox or sheep to. kill , or
meat to be salted or dried.
There are few things that the Boer
requires which he is not able to make
himself. Even his shoes are constructed
out of leather which he himself has
tanned. He dries and cuts his own
tobacco; and the stables and cattle-
kraals on his farm are erected under
his personal supervision. There is no
lack of work, therefore, at least in the
In the afternoon, usually, the distant
rattle of wheels, or the clatter of horses'
hoofs, announces a visit. The family
come outside and peer in the direction
whence the sound comes. The speck
on the horizon is sufficient to tell the
Boer which of his neighbours is
approaching. His sharp eyes at once
recognize the horse or horses, for he is
familiar with the appearance of all the
beasts of draught or burden in the
neighbourhood. Should the animals be
unknown to him, then he watches with
but the greater interest for the approach
of the stranger.
For none who rides towards a Boer
dwelling will easily pass by without
alighting: he knows that he is welcome
and that he will please the people by
BOER TRAVELLING WAGGONS. Harnessed with many oven — a full team
sixteen — the Boer waggon goes slowly, growling, creaking and jolting over the uneven n
At night it shelters the whole family. The Kaffirs sleep underneath, at Least at the boors
during which the oxen rest, for the journey is made for the most part at night: in the
glowing heat of the day-time, the yoke scorches the hide from the oxen's necks. Tin-
household carries all cooking necessaries in the waggon, ami. when moving, even tin-
HEROES OF THE BOEE WAR.
entering. The housewife at once offers
him a cup of coffee, and the husband
hands him his tobacco-pouch. Should
the visitor stay longer, or ask for hos-
pitality for the night, which is hardly
ever refused, the Boer goes outside and
himself sees that the horses are pro-
perly tended. The best of everything
is set before the guest, the best bed-room
is allotted to him , and everything is
done to make his stay under the hos-
pitable roof as pleasant as possible.
And, in the morning, when he departs
and his horses have had their fill of
food , he owes his host nothing but
thanks. The Boer will accept no money,
and, when the stranger takes his leave,
the whole family come out and shake
his hand as though he were an old
and tried friend. That is South African
A TYPICAL TRANSVAAL DOER.
If the guest is an European and
gifted with powers of observation, it is
to be hoped that he has not neglected
to talk at length with the Boer. The
head of the house is fond of a chat
and will try to make his visitor feel at
home. National politics are a subject
on which the Boer is particularly well-
informed. He studies his political
newspapers with an eagerness which
makes it a pleasure for the editors to
write for him. No neighbour can make
a call but politics become the first
and foremost subject of conversation.
And in the higher politics, too, events
do not escape him, even though he be
not always quite up to date.
Should the European prove to be
a well-educated man, who does not in-
sist too much upon his knowledge , a
proceeding which invariably puts the
Boer off, the latter will
turn the occasion to account
to gain information on
matters which were not
quite clear to him.
I myself have often
been asked questions by
Boers which struck me as
a proof of their desire for
"See , now you're a
Hollander, now you must
tell me a bit: how do they
mean to drain the Zuider
Zee?" was a question once
put to me by a transport-
rider on a subject touching
my mother country.
In the course of con-
versation, it appeared that,
years ago, the man had read
of this plan in a paper.
He had retained the subject
in his memory until he
should come into contact
with a Netherlander. Indeed,
it gradually became manifest
to me that the Boer had read
the article with great care,
MANNERS AND UIAKAl TKi; OF THE BOERS
and had employed his brains upon it.
The questions he put to me gave evi-
dence of the correctness of his judg-
ment. I was then struck with the Boer's
great common-sense. Later, on com-
mando, when I came more closely into
contact with Transvaalers or Free
Staters, I noticed that they all possessed
this quality: and I observed that the]
always sought the company of men
from whom they could learn something,
and that they would sit listening with
eager ears to the words of such men,
interrupting them from time to time
with pithy comments.
The old Boers, the Takharen or
HEROES OF THE Ho Kit WAR.
Tanglehairs, us they are called in South
Africa, because of their shaggy and
neglected manes, used in old days to
teach their children by candle-light, in
the evening, to read and write, with
the aid of the Bible, which no house-
hold is without. This was good enough
for the old times. Before the war
broke out, however, no large Boer
homestead but had its teacher, and,
where the Africanders were too poor
to allow themselves the exclusive luxury
of a tutor for their own children, they
sent them to the national schools,
which enjoyed a State subsidy and
provided an excellent education, or else
had them educated by travelling teachers.
In 1898, the South African Re-
public, with her few hundred thousand
inhabitants, spent ,£226,416 4*. 8(/. on
educational purposes, and the attendance
at the schools increased by 13,900
children between 1882 and 1898: a
convincing proof that the Boer is alive
to the value of good instruction. 1
In general the Boer remains true
to the simple traditions of his fathers.
On Sunday, the Lord's Day, the day of
rest, the Boer and his family and all
the volk — the Africander expression
for the Kaffirs of the homestead —
meet in the great dining and reception
room The Boer and the members of
the family occupy the chairs and the
natives squat respectfully on the floor,
close together , against the wall. The
old family Bible is laid on the table
in front of the head of the house.
1 When the schools of a State are in
a flourishing condition, that State has reason
to be proud of its intellectual development,
and not even her most prejudiced detractors
dared to accuse the South African Republic
of vandalism, when it was once an establish-
ed fact that she had obtained the highest
possible distinction (Grand prix) at the Paris
Exhibition of 1900 for elementary, as well
as secondary and advanced education. We
must look into the school statutes, Article 8,
dating from 1892, which remained in operation
until the commencement of the war, to learn
how this success was obtained by a young
and thinly-populated State. It laid special
emphasis on the duties of parents towards
their children regarding education, while
the State was, first, to encourage the burghers
in willing co-operation and private initiative,
and, when necessary, to give them every assis-
tance; secondly, to exercise supervision
over the subsidized schools by watching the
religious and secular training of the future
burghers, as far as might seem advisable
to the Government; thirdly, to found an
institution for the higher branches of edu-
cation, for the instruction of those who
wished to become teachers, or were desirous
of filling official posts.
The Government was exceedingly generous
in the encouragement of these semi-self-
supporting establishments, due to the ini-
tiative of the individual. It voted considerable
grants for all sorts of practical purposes,
such as assisting in the founding and equip-
ment of school-buildings and houses for the
teachers; paying the travelling expenses of
those teachers coming from abroad; granting
money rewards for special successes obtained
in schools or classes at the yearly examina-
tions; giving prizes for good school-books
and school competitions; assisting every
child over six who had attended a recog-
nized school on so many days during the
month; and helping to start village libraries.
At Pretoria, the Government supported a
State library, a State museum and the
Zoological Gardens, and always had an
open hand for the needs of children of
poor parents. Special attention is to be
drawn to the fact that Government was
authorized in lb96 (Article 15) to build
schools in the Gold Fields, wherever it seem-
ed necessary and advisable, such buildings
to be erected at the expense of the State;
and to nominate and pay instructors, as
iu other State-supported schools. In these
State schools of the Gold Fields, the children
of Outlanders could receive instruction in
their own language for a small extra charge,
and it was decided in these cases to intro-
duce the Dutch official language only very
gradually, so as not to interfere with the
steady progress and development of these
The Government showed the same con-
scientiousness with regard to the supervision
of schools. Six inspectors, chosen from
among the teachers as the most efficient,
went on their appointed circuits during the
year, examining the pupils in all branches,
appointing the standard and, in this way,
not only superintending the work of the
teachers, but also giving valuable advice
HEROES OF THE BOER WAR.
This Bible is dear to him. He has
learnt to read and write out of it,
and in hard times the Sacred Book has
brought him consolation and renewed
Opening the Bible with every mark
of respect, he reads a chapter simply
and with evident conviction, and then
offers up a prayer. Generally, one or two
psalms are next sung to the accompani-
ment of a seraphine organ , which al-
most every household possesses. This
is the simple Sunday observance in
the country, and it will be seen from
this that the attitude of the Boers
towards the natives is not exactly what
it is represented to be by some writers.
The Boer allots to the Kaffirs who
work on his farm a pntch of ground
on which the natives erect their clay
rondafel. This is a hut with a flat
thatched roof, and of circular shape,
deriving its name from ronde tafel,
or round table. Here the native lives
to them, as well as to the school authorities,
where such was required. In the outlying
districts, where there were as yet no schools,
they did all in their power to stimulate
the inhabitants to start them; and, as a
rule, the visits of the school inspectors were
looked forward to with pleasure, for the
Boers began to show a growing interest in,
and desire for, education.
With regard to the third object in
view, the founding of an institute for higher
education, the Government, with the sanction
of the First Volksraad, went even further
than their original proposals. Not only
did they, in 1893, build a "State gymnasium"
or college at Pretoria, containing both gym-
nasium and High School, where the results
of the first final examination, held in 1898,
gave absolute satisfaction to the Govern-
ment delegates, but they added a "State
Model School" and, in connection with
this, a "Normal Training College," for those
who wished to become teachers, and a State-
supported girls' school, which also very
shortly had a "Normal Training College" and
High School added to it If it had not been
for the war, the School of Mines, which was
founded at the commencement of the year
1897, would have developed into an edu-
cational centre whose success was assured.
Students, before entering, were to pass
through the high school connected with
the gymnasium A deaf-and-dumb and
blind asylum was to have been founded
when the number of afflicted children in
the South African Republic demanded it;
until then the deaf-and-dumb and blind
were sent to Worcester, in Cape Colony,
if the parents wished it, partly or entirely,
as the case might demand, at the expense
of the State.
The founding of these so-called State
schools caused some divergence from the
principle of private initiative; but the State
confined itself to a small number of edu-
cational institutions, which were in reality
centres for advanced education and served
as models for other schools. Besides, it
became necessary to put an end to the
unjust accusations of negligence towards
the Outlander children and to give the
well-intentioned Outlanders an opportunity
to have their children taught the national
language by degrees, without interfering
with the steady progress of education in
their native tongue.
The expenses incurred by the Ad-
ministration for Education, including staff,
inspectors, etc., amounted, during the vear
1898, to #226,416. This sum, voted' ex-
clusively for the purpose of education,
proves the importance attached by the South
African Republic to a sound national
We will now add some general infor-
mation concerning facts which may interest
The majority of schools are situated
on rivers, or streams which flow into those
Non-attendance in either town or village
schools was not frequent (only 15 per cent),
and rarer still (9 per cent) in the peasant
schools, that is, in those schools which were
held on the farms. Compared with the
statistics of schools in other countries, this
is very remarkable, considering the diffi-
culties with which the Boers had to contend
in sending their children to school, such as
the scarcity of labourers, locusts, unfordable
Attached to the State school for girls
was a boarding-house, where those coming
from the country might be lodged and
boarded at a moderate charge.
At a similar economical rate, students
attending the State gymnasium and model
school were received in houses provided
by the State and controlled by competent
The buildings of the State gymnasium
and School of Mines contained large lecture
HEEOES OF THK BOEK WAR.
CENTRAL HALL UK THE STATE MUSEUM AT PKETOKIA. On account ol the war, it
was found impossible to complete the building, although the work was never entirely dis-
with his wife and children. He saves
the wages which he earns from the
Boer until he is able to buy a horse
or a piece of cattle, and slowly his
property increases. When there is no
work to be done for the Boer, he works
on his allotment. His wife and children
help the Boer's wife with the house-
keeping, and, when the children grow
big enough, they work with the others
in the fields, or in minding the cattle.
The Kaffir's cattle are allowed to graze
on the Boer's pastures, and the herd
has to be pretty large before the Boer
thinks of charging his roll- any hire.
So soon as the Boer's youngest
child is able to walk, it receives a
little Kaffir mite as a play-fellow. The
piccaninny soon grows attached with
all its heart to its hlein baas, or little
boss. Should the son take a wife and
start on a farm of his own, his body-
Kaffir accompanies him and at once
assumes a certain authority over the
other natives of the place. When the
baas goes out with the waggon, the
rooms and laboratories, and abundant space
was devoted to the collections and experi-
ments of the State Geologist.
There were twelve State schools in the
Gold Fields in 1898, numbering 1499 scholars
and 49 teachers. A third part of the latter
consisted of English men and women, who,
although they did not understand a word
of Dutch, had been appointed and were
well paid. At Johannesburg there was a
flourishing German educational establish-
ment, supported by the State.
The number of teachers, male and
female, trained in the South African Re-
public rose steadily every year, and had
reached a total of 158.
There were hardly any schools to be
found in the North-West, North and North-
East of the Republic, for those districts were
not inhabited, or only very sparsely. Numbers
of parents living in districts on the Natal
border sent their children to school in Natal,
or employed English tutors and governess-
es. — Publishers' Note.
MANNERS AND CHARACTER OF THE BOERS
THE NEW BUILDING OF TE STATE GIRLS' SCHOOL AT PRETORIA. At the commence-
ment of the war, the buildings had not yet been inaugurated or inhabited. Ather the fall
of Pretoria, they were fitted up by the English as a hospital.
body- Kaffir is the one to accompany
him, and it is an unwritten condition
that one of the latter's children shall
serve as the master's attendant when
he goes on commando. This attendant
carries the reserve of cartridges and
looks to the horses.
When the Kaffir grows too old to
work, no Boer will leave him to his
fate. He is allowed to live peacefully
on the farm to his last day. When
he sees his baa*, there is not only
reverence in his salutation, but some-
thing of gratitude in his eye.
The Boer is uncommonly kind to
animals. He will never torture a horse,
nor injure any animal. It makes him
furious to see anyone ride a horse
with its back sore from the pressure
of the saddle. He permits no cruelty
to animals; and, keen sportsman though
he be, he will never shoot a bird if
he has reason to believe that it has
His whole appearance marks him
down as something more than flu-
average farmer that we know. There
is something of the country squire in
his manner, and one need but come
into contact with him for a very short
time to observe that he is a man of
race. With his clear head and his tall,
strong body, he is an example of the
mens sana hi corpore »<in<> theory.
The clear landscape, full of dazzling
light; the wide, open veldt; the general
absence of care: these tend to make him
an optimist. That is why he is the last
to lose his faith in ultimate victory,
"Alles z"l recht hum: all will come right."
the favourite maxim of President Brand
of the Orange Free State, is an excellent
motto for the A.fricanders. Their
optimism is endowed with the im-
movable faith that everything will
come out right, however gloomy the
future may seem. Both young repub-
lics have met with many calamities in
past years, and the motto has always
HEROES OF THE BOER WAR
FRONT VIEW OF THE STATE GYMNASIUM AT PRETORIA. One hardly expects to find
so pretty and compact a building in a "peasant Republic." It bears ample testimony to the
generosity of both the Government and Volksraad in matters of education. The interior
corresponds in every respect with the exterior. The building contains both the High School
It must be admitted that the Boers'
optimism often changes to thought-
lessness. They are easily dejected, but
they as easily recover all their belief
in the bright side of the case. Their
optimism was the reason why they
rested for weeks after their victories
and gave the enemy time to concentrate
his forces. It was their optimism that
led them to see no danger in the
smouldering fires at Johannesburg just
before the Jameson Raid. Their optimism,
too, is at the bottom of their over-
confidence in men who know how to
turn their own eloquence and powers
of flattery to crafty account. The
Boers' optimism unfits them for trade.
They are liable at one moment too
readily to accept a proffered price, at
another to judge that they can demand
more than is obtainable in the cir-
The fertility of the African soil,
which requires little cultivation, the
hail-storms, the locusts, which in a
short time are able to destroy all the
crops, without the Boer having it in
his power to prevent it: these are all
causes that tend to produce the spirit
of resignation in the Africander.
The mutual relationship of the Boers
is in general of a very friendly and
companionable character. Quarrels and
brawls are unknown plagues in South
Africa, and, however violently Boers
may often be opposed in politics, this
is to them no reason to be anything
but sincere friends in all other respects.
Even adherence to opposed church
parties, which was one of the chief
points of difference in the two republics,
would not lead to open or secret
hostility between two Boers. And the
Boer is as calm in the home circle as
he is peaceable with his fellows. Peace
and tranquillity reign in his household,
where all respect the authority of the
master of the house. He is moderate
.MANNERS AND CHAEACTEB OF THE BOERS
THE CLASS ROOM FOR FREE-HAND DRAWING IN THE STATE GYMNASIUM AT
in drinking; immoderate only in smok-
ing. He puffs great clouds of smoke
the whole day long. He takes up his
pipe so soon as he dons his jacket in
the morning, and does not put it down
till he stands in his shirt-sleeves at
night. At meals he deprives himself
of his pet indulgence only long enough
to fill his stomach. A Boer who does
not smoke is as rare an exception as
a Boer who is unmarried, or as one
who is married and childless.
The Boer's house is generally
spacious and airy. All the rooms are
on one floor; attics and lofts exist only
in his stables, as receptacles for fodder
for horses and other cattle. His living-
room mostly serves as dining and
sitting-room in one. The floor is made
of pressed cow-dung, which becomes
as hard as stone. His hangings and
carpets consist of the dressed skins of
deer and roe-buck which he has shot.
and sheep which he has killed. The
many small tables are adorned by
numerous framed family-portraits. The
places of honour in the room un-
reserved for the English side-board
with its bright mirrors, and the American
seraphine organ, laden with pile- <>t
sacred music and English songs. The
repertoire of original Africander songs
is still lamentably small.
This picture of an Africander home
is not, of course, a faithful reflection
of every Boer dwelling. Some arc
simpler. Numbers are much more
luxurious. On many farms, especially
in the Orange Free State, the house
is arranged in the modern European
fashion, with a taste and richness free
from all excess or violent contrasts.
The place itself is a model farm, on
which thousands of pounds have been
spent on irrigation works, plantations
and the newest American inventions in
agricultural implements. Here the
and milch-cows have coats that gleam
with well-being, the horses trample
with good feeding, the sheep waddle
in their thick and luxurious fleeces.
In the villages, the Boer remain-
iii:i;oi-:s of tiik ijokk war.
A PRIVATE HOUSE AT PRETORIA.
faithful to his customs. He is out of
bed at the first sign of approaching
dawn and enjoying the fresh morning
breeze. He retires early in the evening,
after spending the day in work and in
digging his garden. His dress and
manners differ in no way from those
of the European: he is notable, however,
for his broad and sturdy figure, his
big beard and his firm and healthy
tread. His wife and
daughters dress taste-
fully: sometimes with a
little excess of colour.
In company he shows
himself a lively talker,
especially when relating
which he excels in
It has not been my
intention in this chapter
to give a comprehensive
picture of the African-
der Boer. That would
require a volume of
greater dimensions than
this little work. I
have only tried to sketch
the Boer in a few lines.
In so doing, I have
had neither the Trans-
vaaler nor the Free
Stater more particularly
in my mind's eye. Both
nations are so closely
akin in character that
I have treated them as
one. The Free Stater
may be a litte more
cosmopolitan than the
Transvaaler, but this
does not constitute a
sufficient difference to
warrant a separate de-
lineation of character.
Both have struggled
for a sacred cause, both have fought
with the same courage and perse-
verance , both have suffered equally.
Both wish to be considered together as
the representatives and combatants of
the Young Africander race.
My pen -sketches of their leaders
and generals, as I have known them,
are no more than they pretend to be:
swift, transitory sketches. They are
A PRIVATE HOUSE AT PRETORIA.
MANNERS AND CHAEACTEB OF THE BOERS.
not the product of a life-long study
of their lives, actions and aspirations.
I learnt to know them in my capacity
as a journalist, and as such I have
drawn them: rapidly, briefly, trying to
display the qualities in which they
differ one from the other.
If this work should help to make
the great men of this second struggle
for liberty better known to the British
people, then 1 shall have repaid some
small part of the friendship which
I have enjoyed at the hands of Afri-
canders, and niv sympathy for those
gallant nations shall not have been
A TYPICAL BOEB FAMILY,
THE BOER IN WAR.
[" remember reading an article in the
-*- Daily Mail in which its correspond-
ent, the late Julian Ralph, considered
the question of the value of the courage
of the British troops. And the conclu-
sion to which he came was that all
the contempt of death displayed by the
crack regiments had been of very little
practical use. It is a very fine thing
to march to a certain death with head
erect and without hesitation, like the
Highlanders at Magersfontein, on the
11th of December 1899, and the Canad-
ians at the storming of Cronje's laager
at Paardeberg, on the 18 th of February
1900; but of what use is it against the
modern repeating rifle, which hits with
perfect accuracy at a great distance,
and which gives the marksmen behind
the trenches the incalculable advantage
of being able to mow down almost am
number of assaulters before these have
reached their object?
The Boer admires and respects that
courage, and holds no British soldier
higher than the Scotch; but, at the same
time, he keeps in view the unpractical
side of this heroism, and condemns it
in his peculiar way with his stoical
"Therefore it's banja imprudent." Ami
so Julian Ralph and the Boer conn' to
one and the same conclusion.
What we Europeans call courage,
that is to say, contempt tor death, the
Boer knows nothing of. Yet 1 do not
agree with those who call him a coward.
Circumstances have endowed him with
a quite different sort of courage
From generation to generation, the
descendant of two nations, both well-
known for their contempt of death, the
French and the Dutch, has learnt to
place caution and stratagem on a higher
level than courage. In his struggle
with the natives, who were sometimes
a hundred times as many a- those
whose waggon camp the] attacked, he
has learnt how to beat his enemy by
means of cautious tact and has taught
that enemy to respect him. W ith a
HEROES OE THE BOER WAR,
contempt of death
even greater than
that of the Euro-
pean, the blacks in
close hordes stormed
the laagers only to
be repeatedly driven
hack, in spite of the
small number of the
defenders and the
muskets. The pre-
sence of the women
in the laager gave
the men courage to
tight to the utter-
most for wife ami
child , but at the
same time imbued
them with the ne-
cessary prudence not
to throw away their
lives needlessly and,
in so doing, allow
the Kaffirs to gain
an advantage for
which the Boer's
dear ones would have
COLONEL A. H. SCHIEL, Commandant
of the German Corps. Wounded at Elands-
laagte 21 October 1899, taken prisoner, and
transported to St. Helena. Colonel Schiel,
who is here represented in the uniform
of Captain Commandant of Johannesburg
Fort, played but a very short part in the
had to pay with a
This method of
defence is inbred in
the Boer, and has
been developed yet
further in the present
the Dutch and Ger-
man Corps received
their baptism of
blood on the 21st of
October 1899, and
on the 11th of De-
cember 1899, the
with their heroic
deaths: these are in-
stances of the cour-
age of the Europeans.
Together with the
fight at Boshof,
where the French
General de Villebois
fell on the 5 th of
April 19U0, these
ARRIVAL OF A TRANSPORT AT ELANDSLA ACTE. Slowly the oxen draw the enormous,
springless and, for the greater part, heavily-laden waggons over the uneven roads. A rope
is fastened to the foremost ox, and the team is led by a Kaffir, who walks in front, whilst
the Boer, walking alongside, wields his mighty whip, in the use of which he is so skilled
that he is able to catch up the smallest stone with it, or kill a bird on the wing.
BEROES (>F THE BOEB WAR.
GUNN'ERS OP THE TRANSVAAL STATE ARTILLERY. The S. A. (Slate Artillery)
compelled respect from the English by its uncommonly accurate shooting. The English
generals could not imagine that it was simple Boers who were serving the guns, and news
was constantly being sent into the world to the effect that the Transvaal and Free State had
taken German mercenaries into their service to work the artillery. Nothing is more untrue.
Together witli the police, the artillery formed the standing army of the Transvaal, and with
the former it was the only commando that wore a uniform.
will form brilliant and memorable pages
in the history of oar second War of
Independence: but at the same time they
will bear witness against that contempt
of death which is to be admired, but
no less to be regretted.
The Boer is said to be a little too
cautious and too quick in leaving his
position when it becomes a trifle hot
for him. I will not contest this state-
ment, nor would any impartial person
do so. But remember that no disci-
THE BOEB IX WAR.
pline keeps the Boer to his place, and
that nothing is more contagious than
flight. Where, however, but a shade
of discipline prevails, it soon appears
that the Boer is indeed brave, even in
the sense which we attach to the word.
No one will deny the courage of the
Johannesburg Police, iror of the Free
State and Transvaal Artillery. A Boer
who continues to light until he realizes
the impossibility of holding his position,
and who retreats only at the very last mo-
ment, deserves a more honourable men-
tion than does the European soldier
who advances with the knowledge that
to turn round means certain and shame-
ful death at the hands of his officers.
The European has contempt of death
in his blood; to advance cautiously, to
make use of every bit of cover as the
Boer does when attacking, he thinks
beneath him, and calls it cowardly. The
Boer, on the other hand, takes a practical
view: his object is to injure the enemy,
to spare himself, both in the highest
measure; in other words, the innate
tactics of the Kaffir wars.
Moreover, in the first year of the
war, there was no one to hold back
the Boer when he "changed his posi-
tion:" the favourite word for retiring.
It is true that a commandant or field
cornet might have tried to talk courage
into the poltroon, or to hold him back
by threats: sometimes even to bring him
back to his duty by means of blows;
but this exhausted all so-called forcible
measures. The Boer has not the Eng-
lishman's fear of a disgraceful death at
the hands of his officer. That is why
I have a greater admiration for the
brave Boer than for the death- scorning
It has often been asked why there
was not more discipline in the Boer
commandoes. The answer is to be found
in the character of the Africander. He
is master of his own place: usually
there is no living being to be found
for hours around it. In all cases that
occur upon his farm, he decides without
appeal, and for this reason he brooks
no thwarting (I, of course, except im-
portant questions which concern the
judges or the civil authorities). It is
therefore easily understood that it was
impossible suddenly to accustom him
to military discipline on commando.
Arguments and reminders of the good
of the cause and the help of God were
of great service, as President Kruger
understood, who knew the burghers as
though they were his own children.
But for those there was no time in the
heat of the fight, and that which has
the desired effect with a soldier trained
to discipline produced obstinacy in the
Boer, accustomed to command and not
to be commanded. Hence it came about
that, when he refused to fight, no power
on earth could compel him.
In the earlier stages of the war,
before Lord Roberts captured the Magers-
fontein positions on the 15th of Februarj
1900, the burghers were accustomed,
if leave was refused them to go home
for a short time from commando, siniplj
to go without leave. A burgher who
did not care to fight very easily with-
drew from the action. He merely stayed
in laager, or tried to be given some
job which kept him out of danger.
There were whole commandoes that
acted in this way. The other Boers
stamped these heroes with the charac-
teristic title of la'erleggers, or camp-
loungers, and. in the later stages of the
war. with the typical nickname oibush-
lancers, hiding themselves as they
did in the bush-veldt. The leader-, of
these camp-lounging commandoes or
bush-lancers were generally officers who
were of opinion that it was in any case
better to lose your country than your
lit',.. The patriotic burghers serving
under one of these commandants or field
cornets would join some other com-
mando, where they could take a more
active part in the fighting. On the
other hand, burghers whose lives were
HEROES OF THE BOEE WAR.
too dear to them to be sacrificed for
their country, lefl their commandoes, it'
these were too far in the forefronl of
battle, and joined the camp-loungers.
Bach man was free to join the
commando he preferred. Generally,
members of one family clung together,
so that it often happened that one field
cornet hud a dozen or more men of
the same name serving under him. They
dug their trenches together and lay in
one ditch during the righting. At
Magersfontein, two members of one
family were found lulled and four woun-
ded in the same trench.
I be posil ion taken up, he told him so;
and, if his opinion afterwards turned out
to he collect, he would not fail to
remind bis general of it. This was
the condition of things in the Boer
Army during the first year of the war.
Still, genuine military discipline
prevailed in some of the commandoes
In the Johannesburg Police and the
Transvaal and Free State Artillery,
discipline was no less severe than in
the British Army. Those corps proved
that the Boer had in him the makings
of an ideal soldier, who combined with
the strictest obedience his innate instinct
GLIMPSES OK BOER CAMP LIFE: ARRIVAL OF SUPPLIES. The horsemen who escorted
t lie m- wire responsible for the safe conduct of the waggons. The] wire at the same time carriers
of news, not usually official news, and sometimes a trifle exaggerated. The latest news
spread through the Boer laager with wonderful rapidity.
It often happened that a man re-
ceived a week's leave and returned after
an interval of three weeks. It was
possible for punishment to be adminis-
tered under the military law; but this
rarely took place. In tine, the Boer
on commando was nominally, but not
really, subject to discipline. The burgher
did his duty of his own free will. He
knew his officers, even his general,
personally, addressed them with the
familiar jij and jou and criticized their
acts and orders in their presence. If
he disagreed with the general touching
to seek cover when storming and cap-
turing positions. But no discipline on
earth could ever turn the Boer into a
The artillery and police formed
the standing army of the Transvaal
and Orange Free State. They had
been drilled in time of peace: the
other commandoes had not. Vet there
were some of the Boer officers who
overlooked no offences and maintained
a proper strictness. The cowards left
these officers for less kwaaie kerels
(bad or "nasty" fellows), and through
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o o C^
s o o
O 3 -1,
o 2 °
5* *> 0.
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o * g.
» 2 "'
HEROES <)F TIIK BOER WAR.
GLIMPSES OF BOER CAMP LIFE: RECEIPT OF INTELLIGENCE. Having received
and read his dispatch, the commandant would call the burghers together, mount a plat-
form , by preference an ox-waggon , and read it out aloud to the attentive listeners gathered
this fact the quality of the commandoes
of the severer generals, commandants
and field-cornets was naturally improved.
The absence of discipline in the
Boer commandoes had its compensating
advantages. The Boer, in consequence,
acted more independently and did not
lapse into a military machine, incapable
of moving without orders. The Boer
trusted his mate. He knew that the
latter was not likely to commit a blunder,
and he acted in harmony with him,
without orders or preconcerted agree-
When this mutual confidence was
shaken and when the Boer no longer
felt convinced that his comrade would
not, at a given moment, leave him in
the lurch, then Lord Roberts' success
began, and the field -marshal cleverly
took advantage of the general loss of
that mutual bond in order to march
to Pretoria before confidence was
restored. Had the Boers still possessed
the old spirit which had rendered
the assault of Spion Kop possible
on the 24th and 25th of January 1900,
Lord Roberts would have met with
a very different sort of opposition.
As it happened, only a few com-
mandoes made a stand against the
progress of the overwhelming numeri-
cal superiority ; these did not, of
course, consist of camp-loungers, but
of the sturdy burghers who had the
courage and the sense of duty to stand
firm under their brave and undaunted
leaders. And yet the Boers can hardly
be blamed for not hampering the mighty
march to Pretoria. Their forces were
becoming steadily smaller, and the Eng-
lish no longer fought as before, but
restricted themselves to endeavouring,
with their ten-fold superiority, to sur-
round their enemy's forces and to
prepare for them the fate of Cronje
and his followers. Had the Boers then
allowed themselves to be surrounded,
the war would probably have ended
much earlier than it did, as their
numbers would have shrunk through
capture to an even still more distress-
To take to flight and change
the whole method of warfare became
an immediate necessity. After the
capture of Pretoria, General De Wet
abandoned the grande guerre without
hesitation or delay, and, once Komati
Poort had been occupied, General Louis
THE I'.ORR IN WAR
Botha also took up the guerilla. The
Boers had no alternative. To the quarter
of a million British soldiers they could
oppose but some twenty thousand men;
and their biff-gun ammunition was be-
coming exhausted. The time for war
on a large scale was past.
In the guerilla the Boer felt more at
home. He was now seldom attacked
by a force too powerful for his small
numbers; for he took care to evade
any such force. He himself selected
the detachment which he proposed to
attack, and was therefore almost always
able to reckon on success. With the
greatest cleverness, and relying on the
swiftness of his horse, he succeeded
in escaping his enemy , who knew
the country so badly. He struck
his blow, and, before there was a
chance of catching him , he was
gone. This life was less fatiguing for
the Boer, accustomed to sleep on the
veldt, to shift for himself, to content
himself with slender rations, than for
the Englishman, who was given but
little rest. Each fresh success roused
the Boer's courage. There was no fear
of recklessness on his side; recklessness
is not in his nature; recklessness is
"Ixnija imprudent." He was fully in-
formed of every movement of the enemy:
the British were in the midst of bis
country and surrounded by spies who
were never at loss for means to transmit
news. And, when the Boer did not
receive the information he required in
the field, he went and sought it for
Many ways were open to him. The
first and simplest of these the English
themselves had taught him. He harnessed
his oxen to his waggon, loaded it with
agricultural produce and drove to
market, to return with the desired data
to his farm, and then to his commando.
In this way, he even ventured into the
British camp, where he sold his vege-
(JLIMPSES OF BOER CAMP LIFE: RESTING. The scouts have returned without meeting
the enemy, as is seen by their full bandoliers. The horses are off-saddled and enjoying
their feed. Tired, but alert, the warriors are snatching a few moments' rest.
HEROES OF THE BOEK WAR.
tallies tn the Tommies with the consent
of the officer on duty.
It' lie saw no chance of spying in
this fashion, then, aided by the all-
shrouding South African darkness, he
slipped through the British lines at night,
as Dame Theron did when he performed
his famous feat of penetrating to Cronjes
invested laager at Paardeberg and back
again. After a short stay amid the
British forces, he returned in the same
stealthy manner through theenemy'slines.
But, if this too was impossible, then
the Boer simply donned the English
khaki, saddled a captured horse, and
Moreover, the equipment of the
Boer was so light that it was no ob-
stacle whatever to the swiftness of his
horse. His load generally consisted of
his rifle and ammunition, a little kettle
for boiling his coffee, a mug and a flask.
Finally, his great advantage over his
enemy lay in his ubiquitousness, which
enabled him at any given moment
suddenly to increase his forces. A
commando which numbered a hundred
men to-day would, if need be, consist
of a thousand to-morrow. And, should
the enemy approach with a larger force
to destrov the little Boer commando.
GLIMPSES OF BOER CAMP LIFE: A FIELT) CORNET'S TENT. A report has come
in and is being read by the field cornet. Important orders appear to be expected, for the
Boers are armed and ready to march.
he, who otherwise always gallops, trotted,
according to all the rules of the Eng-
lish riding-school, to the town or camp,
where his knowledge of the enemy's
language and his own boldness enabled
him to overcome all difficulties. In this
way, the men of the Johannesburg Police
paid repeated visits to several towns
Another advantage of the Boer is
his dexterity in the harnessing and un-
harnessing of waggons, carts and guns,
thanks to which he always gained on
the enemy on the march: no small
advantage in guerilla warfare.
then the latter dissolved as it were into
the endlessness of the African veldt.
Each man went his own way, to meet
his comrades again at a place fixed
Even in this guerilla warfare, with
the numerous dispersed commandoes,
the English never succeeded in com-
pletely interrupting the communica-
tions between the different officers in
command. From the foremost post in
Cape Colony to the most northerly
point in the Transvaal, communications
were regularly and unintermittently
maintained by dispatch -riders, who
HEROES OF THE BOEE WAR.
easily passed through the British lines.
Dr. Bierens de Haan, wlio worked for
eighteen months as one of the sur-
geons of the Netherlands Red Cross
Ambulance with the Boer commandoes,
con firms this fact and declares that
only once was General De la Rey cut
off from communicating with his friends,
for a space of three weeks. This was
the only case of interruption of the
communication between the Boer com-
mandoes from the fall of Komati Poort,
on the 24th of September 1900, to the
middle of April 1901.
And in the guerilla warfare the
Boers have shoAvn that they too possess
the particular quality which we Euro-
peans call courage or contempt of death.
The change in the manner of conducting
the war necessitated continual attacks,
where formerly they had been content to
act on the defensive. And as assailants
they have shown themselves as undaunt-
ed as formerly when defending their
positions. Again their great power
lay in their iron nerves, which formerly
enabled them quietly to await attack
and calmly to leave the enemy's fire
unanswered, until the British soldiers
had come within range of the Mauser.
The difference in the meaning of
the word courage, as understood by
the Europeans and the Boers, led to
only too great a disillusionment on the
part of the Europeans, especially at the
commencement of the war. The Hol-
landers and Germans in the Boer ranks
would often talk enthusiastically of a
feat performed by some reckless indivi-
dual or other:
u No," a Boer would drawl out in
reply, '"that's a bit too imprudent, you
This condemnation would act as a
cold shower-bath upon the exulting
European and often closed his eyes to
other deeds showing a genuine contempt
of death, but less striking, perhaps,
than the storming of kopjes.
< )ne did not hear him speak of the
Boer who, amid the rain of bullets,
carried his wounded comrade out of
the fighting line to the ambulance and
then calmly returned to his post, be-
cause it was the right thing to do. To
leave a position had made so bad an
impression on our European that he
had no eyes for the many cases in
which the Boer laid down his gun and
went to the aid of the British wounded
calling for water, even though he ran
every risk of losing his life by it. Yet
in this sort of contempt for death the
Boer was in no way deficient.
He has, however, given even greater
proofs of courage, which justly entitle
the Free Staters and Transvaalers to
call themselves het volk vol heldenmbld,
the nation of heroes. Lord Roberts
issued his seductive proclamations (of
31 May 1900 et seq.) The Boer,
who was greatly attached to his wife
and child, who loved his land, which
by his hand and care had grown
to what it was, his farm-house, which
he himself had built, the orchard him-
self had planted, his cattle that formed
his wealth, would have been able to
return to all these if he had laid down
his arms. No more privations, no
more danger of death, no more
parting from wife and child. The
temptation was strong. His general or
commandant had no power to prevent
him. He himself had been for months
on the veldt, he scarcely knew how
things were going at his homestead.
The retreating movement of his com-
mandoes took him past his place. If
he went home, he retained all: at least,
so he believed; if he went on, he lost
all that for which his fathers and himself
had laboured for years. Nothing but
his sense of duty, his love of his country
could make him decide in this difficult
Every Boer stood face to face with
his choice, and half of them passed by
wife and child and home, while it would
have been so much easier, so much
THE BOEB IN WAR.
more advantageous and less disquieting
to fall out of the commando in order
to protect and care for wife and child.
Courage such as this must inspire
respect even in the bitterest foe, just
as the tenacious perseverance with
which the struggle for independence was
maintained, compels admiration.
We have heard that the clothes of
the Boers were ragged, that many of
them only put on their shoes before
fighting, to save their last pair, already
almost worn out. We have heard that,
during the last months of the struggle,
from the lowest burgher to the Com-
mandant General and the Acting Presi-
dent, all had nothing to eat l>nt
coarsely -roasted mutton and meal-pap,
and often not even that. We have
heard that, towards the end, they had, at
most, one blanket apiece wherewith to
cover themselves at night against the
biting cold. He who has taken part
in the veldt life in South Africa can
imagine the misery and privations. And
yet the struggle was long maintained.
The Boers' sacred , fanatical love of
their country kept them in the field.
Who shall deny the majesty of such
TrtREE GKNBRATIONS AT THE WAR. The grandfather was 66, the father 48,
the son 15 years of age. The grandfather was too old lor compulsory enlistment:
the son too young; but neither deemed himself too old or too young to cany and
use a rifle for love of the mother-land. The father killed three English soldiers
before six others succeeded in overpowering him.
OOM PAUL AND TANTE SANNA.
AT the end of May 1899, I was in-
structed by my editor to accompany
the President on his journey to Bloem-
fontein, where the conference with Sir
Alfred Milner, the British High Com-
missioner, was to take place. As the
representative of the Volksstem, I travelled
in the President's train.
The day of our departure was a
glorious winter's day, full of radiant
sunshine that cheered the heart. The
wide, pale veldt, the vast blue sky, the
fresh breeze which wafted wholesome
and invigorating perfumes to us from
out of Nature's infinity, the gentle move-
ment of the saloon-carriage: all tended
to produce an exhilarating mood.
I knew that the coming conference
with Sir Alfred Milner would be of
the utmost moment for South Africa;
a few days before our departure, State
Secretary Reitz had said to me:
"This is perhaps the last chance;
if this conference produces no result,
I shall expect war as almost a cer-
But I felt so full of sheer animal
spirits that the first puff of wind car-
ried all sombre humours away with it
to dispel them in the vastness of the
African landscape. Dr. Heymans, the
oculist, Mr. W. J. Fockens, the Presi-
dent's secretary, and I sat cheerfully
talking on the platform of the Presi-
dent's carriage, our eyes wandering over
the veldt, majestic, all- subduing in its
grandeur, in which trees, houses, kopjes
even, are lost as specks, as nothings.
Behind us, in the saloon, sat Oom
Paul, State Attorney J. C. Smuts and
the two members of the Executive Raad,
A. D. W. Wolmarans and Schalk Willem
Our conversation grew livelier, inter-
mingled with frequent laughter, when
we found ourselves approaching a station.
1 stood up to see where we were, and,
as it happened, my glance fell upon
the old President. I started: never had
I seen him so serious, so bent, so old.
It was painfully silent inside the saloon:
none of those present uttered a word.
IIKi;<>i;s OF TIIK BOER WAR.
President Kruger's eyes were more
inflamed than they had been for a long
time since Dr. Heymans had treated
them; they stared ont before them with
an expression of utter sadness and pro-
found grief. My cheerful humour fled,
and I too was overcome with a sense
of melancholy. 1 knew Oom Paul only
as the pleasant talker, always full of
jokes and anecdotes when travelling; as
a man who shortened the longest journey
with his tales of hunting adventures
and personal recollections; as a man
who could laugh so heartily and ge-
nuinely that he made others join in
his laughter, even if a great part of
the story was lost because the Presi-
dent speaks so indistinctly.
We steamed through the station.
A number of people stood on the plat-
form and respectfully bared their heads.
His Honour acknowledged the greet-
ing, but not with his usual friendly
nod and merrily -twinkling eye. His
bow was absent-minded and sad. Our
talk outside dropped ; the sublime
landscape, the free air of heaven no
longer held us; our mood was gone
and did not return until much later
when, at Kroonstad, where the train
was stopped during the night so as not
to disturb the President's sleep, we sat
in the railway refreshment-room, listen-
ing to the gay conversation of Land-
drost Papenfuss, of Bloemfontein, and
Major Albrecht, the Commandant of the
Free State Artillery, who had received
President Kruger at Viljoensdrift, the
The next day, during the second
half of the journey, I was struck by
the same appearance of gloomy serious-
ness worn by the President. But, at
Bloemfontein, when no longer in the
midst of his own circle, he became the
diplomatist once more. He strove to
assume a lively air while he was being
welcomed at the station, and, thanks to
ihs iron will, succeeded; but the people
who saw him thought he had grown old.
At the reception he even seemed
jovial, and those who had gone to this
function to read on his face how the
political situation stood went home with
easy minds. Oom Paul was cheerful.
Oom Paul was confident. It was not
the first time that President Kruger had
shown the world that it must not hope
to read on his face what was passing
inside him. At the "rout" at President
Steyn's, the same masterly acting, the
same control of his emotions.
The two Presidents and their coun-
cillors worked daily until late at night.
I did not again see President Kruger
in his own circle until two days had
passed. It was Sunday morning. Oom
Paul was sitting outside on the veran-
dah. The first thing that struck me
was that he had laid aside his inse-
parable pipe. He sat quite alone, which
was also not his custom. His eyes were
very red and the lids greatly swollen.
I could see that he had been crying.
Dr. Heymans told me later that, in
the morning, he had said to him:
"President, you've been greeting,
and that's very bad for your eyes."
"Yes," answered President Kruger,
simply and very sadly, "I don't sleep now,
doctor: I cry the whole night through."
I went and sat with the President,
but the conversation flagged. There
were long pauses of gloomy silence.
At last he rose, on the pretext that
the sun hurt his eyes, and went indoors.
I went in search of Danie Wolma-
rans, who was walking in the garden,
also alone. He too had tears in his
eyes and spoke with an ill- controlled
tremor in his voice. Schalk Burger
appeared from another part of the
orchard, waxen pale against the black
of his hair and beard.
Their sadness seized upon me. It
was a torture to see those tall, strong
men, with their past of sorrow and
strife, so utterly downcast. I shall
never forget that morning. As I went
away, I heard Danie say to Fockens:
VIEWS Of HEIDELBERG. 1. Heidelberg a prospermia village lying ill the midst of the
Gold Fields, is the capital of the district of that name. 2. The building from which the
Vierkleur waves is the Landdrost's Court. 3 & 5. The little water-falls here reproduced
belong to the sights of the place. 4. The little sand-stone church gleams white in the
middle of the great market-place. It was at Heidelberg that President Kruger in the commen-
cement of 1898, unfolded the programme which granted a liberal franchise , law-reforms and
other reforms of a far-reaching character.
HEROES OF THE BOEE WAR.
"And if we had done as they asked,
they would not have been contented.
There were other things to be settled,
the High Commissioner said."
At that moment I did not know
what Danie meant; now I understand
that he referred to the five years'
franchise and Sir Alfred Milner's remark
that, in addition to the franchise, there
were other things to be discussed, even
though that were the principal one.
We left Bloemfontein by special
train at eight o'clock on the evening
of the 5th of June. The President
went straight to bed, and I did not
see him again till the next morning.
He was less sad: the fact that both
President Steijn and the Free State
Volksraad had approved of his line of
conduct during the negociations forti-
fied him. And had not Sir Alfred
Milner allowed it to appear, when
closing the Conference, that in any
case a good foundation had been laid
for further negociations? I knew this
two days later, when the report of the
Bloemfontein Conference was published.
I then understood why Oom Paul had
been in better spirits on his return
from his journey to Canossa: all was
not yet lost. He was firmly decided to
strain every nerve to save South Africa
from a terrible disaster. If only Mr.
Chamberlain and Sir Alfred Milner had
entertained the same noble resolve!
It was the 10th of October, the
President's birthday. Dr. Engelenburg,
the Editor of the Volksstem, had al-
ready gone to the South-East of the
Republic with the early commandoes.
The duty of congratulating the Head
of the State fell upon myself. Oom
Paul had asked that all public cele-
brations might be abandoned. The
times were too grave for merry-making.
The ultimatum had been dispatched.
The limit of time would be up at five
o'clock the next day. The die was cast.
There was no drawing back.
In August, after the offer of the
five years' franchise had been made,
when the Times had expressed its
satisfaction and the compliance of the
Transvaal seemed to have improved
even Mr Chamberlain's mood, a moment
of relief had been experienced at Pre-
toria: a very short moment, however,
for the telegram of the Outlander Com-
mittee, with its impossible demands,
combined with Sir Alfred Milner's
irreconcilable attitude, had once more
aroused the war spirit in England. More
troops were dispatched to South Africa.
Mr. Chamberlain delivered his violent
speeches. The extended military posts in
Natal were pushed still nearer the
Transvaal frontier, and the demands of
the British Government were constantly
increasing. The Johannesburg million-
aires, with Rhodes, their financial king,
at their head, triumphed. The Trans-
vaal must be destroyed.
On such a day as this I had to
congratulate Oom Paul! I felt that I
would almost rather die.
"If we have war now, England will
not let go till she has strangled us,"
he had said a few weeks earlier, when
matters were not yet hopeless; and he
added, "God alone can save us."
When I entered the great reception-
room and saw President Kruger seated
in his big arm-chair, I remembered
those final words. There he sat, up-
right, burly as ever. True, the features
were more wrinkled than before , the
eyes seemed sadder, but the wide mouth
stood more firmly marked than ever in
that rugged face. I could see in this
signal representative of his people how
bitter the coming struggle was to be,
the fight for independence which would
It was the day after the Battle of
Elandslaagte (21 October 1899). Com-
plete panic reigned at Pretoria. The
most exaggerated rumours prevailed.
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HEROES OF THE BOEB WAR.
The German Corps had been cut to
pieces. Of the Hollander Corps, the
few who where still alive had fallen
into the enemy's hands. The news
became more unfavourable as the day
advanced. But, towards mid-day, the
] r olksstem received a very full tele-
gram from its special correspondent,
from which it appeared that the po-
sition was not so serious as those in
the capital imagined. I at once took
this telegram to the President's, where
I found the Landdrost of Pretoria and
a special edition which showed that
the first tidings had been wantonly
exaggerated and that, tragic though
it were , the Battle of Elandslaagte
was a glorious feat of arms for the
We of the staff of the Volksstem
felt that day that it might be necessary
to appear on Sunday in order to sup-
press any mischievous and intentional
panic. The people of the Transvaal
are a Christian people , and we were
unwilling to offend the religious pre-
PAARDEKKAAL, NEAR KRUGEESDORP. In the middle of the plain stands the monument
raised on the historic heap of stones. When England, in 1880, refused to restore the in-
dependence of the Transvaal, the burghers assembled here in large numbers, on the 13th of
December, and swore that they would gain their liberty or die. Each took up a stone and
threw it upon the others, as a token that he had registered his vow. Every five years, on
the anniversary of Dingaau's Day (16 December 1838), the Transvaalers assemble here to
render thanks to God for the victory gained in 1881. The photograph represents one of these
one or two other important functionaries
sitting silent, with downcast faces. It
was the commencement of the war and
the first defeat. Oom Paul was calm,
and he, the eldest, the man who felt
the loss most , was advising everyone
to wait for more reliable news. The
first accounts had come from fugitives,
'and the man who runs away", said the
President, "looks upon a tree as the
devil. I have never believed the stories
of runaways," he added.
The facts brilliantly justified the
President. At eleven o'clock the same
evening, the Volksstem appeared with
judices of others. I therefore went to
ask permission to appear on Sunday if
necessary. State Secretary Reitz had
no objection; he only wished me to
consult President Kruger. The "fanatical
Calvinist," as the late Mr. Rhodes's
admirers love to call the President,
could not understand why the State
Secretary had sent me to him. The
issue would be for the good of the
country. He cordially approved of the
In the Volksraad , the President's
large arm - chair , to the right of the
Speaker's chair, generally remained
oo.M I'AIL AM) TANTK SANNA.
empty. As a rule, the work of the
legislature was as uninteresting as
in most countries. Only when the
President entered did the atmosphere
become laden with an importance which
formed a sharp contrast with the im-
pression immediately preceding his
arrival. The member who was speaking-
would at once cease; the secretary cast
a glance behind him over his right
Speaker gave a
little tap with his
hammer on the
table , the Presi-
dent stepped to-
wards his chair
with a simple
"Good day, gent-
lemen," which re-
House. All the
from their seats,
and the Head of
the State sat down
beside the Speaker
and shook him by
the hand. I know
not whether it
was this greeting
or the fact that
he usually brought
ments with him :
I have always
noticed this sharp
being able to account for the reason.
It used also to strike me how
greatly the forcible attitude of the
President in the Raad differed from
his attitude at home. He no longer
sat huddled in his chair, with the
troubled eye that gave evidence of his
thought. He sat straight up, playing
with some bit of paper which he found
before him, apparently heedless, but
really full of attention. He was ever
THE PAARDEKRAAL MONUMENT.
ready to reply or at once to afford
the desired information. Sometimes he
was even too quick, so that the Speaker
had to motion to him to keep his seat.
I have never known him at a loss for
He seemed younger in the Raad
than at home. Sometimes he was
able cleverly to postpone his replies in
order to gain time for thought. His
deafness in such
cases stood him in
good stead. With
of his body, he
would turn to the
Chairman and ask
what the last
speaker had said.
And , when once
he had, after due
reflection , given
his answer , he
never had occasion
to go back upon
it, however expert
might show them-
It would be
difficult to find a
tougher or more
fender of a motion
than Oom Paul.
The Orders of the
him the right to
speak as often as
he himself thought necessary. He was
entitled to answer each member separate-
ly. And so it happened that, when the dis-
cussion was lively, His Honour probably
established a record for parliamentary
eloquence. Once, when the revision of
the Standing Orders was in question,
the Member for Barberton, Mr. 1\. K.
Loveday, moved that the President's
privilege of debate should be limited like
that of the other members. He showed
HEROES OF T1IK IJOFR WAR.
THE TRANSVAAL NATIONAL ANTHEM.
Words and Music by K. F. van KEES.
Translation by E. J.
=^a3T7 ntrn rr r _XB=
Dostknowthat folk of he -roes' might, And yet so long cast down? It gives its
— z ZZJ-^-j ,__D 3_, ■ » J_,
gZ3Z ^ = g=^f~h-=== l_J ±zEEEEqE ri b di p^ = ^ZJg__ EEgE3
blood and weal outright, Great li-ber-ty to crown. Come, bur-ghers, set your ban-ners
streaming, Our suf-fer-ings are past; Pro-claim your glorious heroes gleaming : We're free-born folk at
-a — S-Fw-^-pi — #--#— Y]y<—»-+- Sv — h — *— *— -* — -p*'**-* — *-+-*-— — 'i — »—\
c*f — 1 #-»-» — #--#^-» — i — ( — f-i — }-\ — +-#— » # » +-1 — I — i — a*-\~ F — * — —
£_ _ .
last! We're free-born folk. We're free-born folk. We're free-born, free-born folk at last!
SPJ^ ^}£teB^} gfe^^ :i^^^l
<>OM PAUL AND TANTE SANNA.
Dost know that land of dwellers rare
And yet so wondrous bright,
Where Nature's marvels past eompare
Are lavishly in sight?
Transvaalers, loud your joy be singing,
There where our brave men stand,
Where festive volleys loud are ringing,
There is our Motherland!
That glorious land,
That glorious land.
There is, that is our Motherland!
Dost know that State still but a child
In the world's comity,
But yet by mighty Britain mild
Erstwhile declared free?
Transvaalers, noble was your fighting,
Though held in scorn so great;
But God, Who's given us our righting,
Be praised for our free State!
Praise be to God,
Praise be to God,
Praise be to God for land and State!
that His Honour had spoken no less
than forty- eight times to a single
Discussion would sometimes wax
violent in the President's presence.
Then he himself would give way to
vehemence, speaking excitedly and, with
brusque movements and angry words,
displaying all his original impetuosity
of character. But, when one of the
members called his attention to his
excited attitude , the President never
failed at once to perceive and honestly
to acknowledge his error.
At such moments, Danie Wolmarans'
attitude, at the time when he was still
a member of the Volksraad, was always
"We are here to give our opinion,
President, and we must do so calmly,"
he once said, after he had listened to
Com Paul's outburst, standing motion-
less in his place.
I at once looked towards His Honour,
whom this quick observation had sud-
denly calmed. It was a grand moment:
the President felt sorry for his loss of
self-control, and Danie had succeeded
in striking the exact note which gave
evidence of his resolution and, at the
same time, of his respect for the person
of Oom Paul and of the venerable
Head of the State.
It did not often happen that a
Government motion defended by the
President was rejected; but it happened
often enough to give the lie to the
contention that His Honour held the
Volksraad in leading-strings. I re-
member once seeing the President very
sore after a defeat, and hearing him
speak with genuine regret of the
refusal of the Raad to accept one of
his proposals. It was when the Gov-
ernment, at the end of the Session of
1898, in the course of the revision of
the Constitution, bad proposed to repeal
the restrictions touching the religious
qualifications for members of the Volks-
raad , public officials, etc. The First
Raad wished first to consult the con-
stituencies in the matter of this con-
cession , whereas the President wanted
to see his bill passed forthwith.
His voice sounded more urgently
that day than I had ever heard it:
pleading and almost weak. But the
Raad stood by its resolve. The Presi-
dent strove to justify his arguments,
but his usually so loud and growling
voice was so sad as to impress the
members, who came up to him in the
dinner-hour with a "we couldn't do
other than we did, President".
What a mighty, wonderful in-
fluence was Oom Paul's in the Volks-
raad , and how well he knew how to
exercise that influence for good in
matters of importance, and, thanks to
his superiority, to obtain that to which
others could not so easily have brought
the Volksraad to consent! Though the
people now and then became stubborn
through the shameless exploiting of
"grievances," Oom Paul remained ever
the same and strove to remove those
grievances where he could. This would
cost him trouble, exertion and care;
but his iron will triumphed in the end.
One of the measures to which the
HEROES OF THE BOER WAR.
people were strongly opposed at the
commencement was the bill which
provided that, in the schools in the
Gold Fields, the instruction in the four
upper classes should be in English. The
people did not understand this measure
and regarded it as an insult to the
national tongue. Besides, the shameless
treachery of the Jameson Raid of
December 1895 was too recent in
their memories when the proposition
was laid before the people for their
approval. But President Kruger was
able to combat and remove all pre-
judices. He defended Dr. Mansvelt's
Gold Fields Education Bill with all his
enthusiasm and persuasive power, and
slowly , after many explosions , the
people became reconciled to the idea.
The bill was passed unanimously,
President Kruger received no thanks
from the English. On the contrary,
shortly before the South African diffi-
culties, Mr. Chamberlain declared that,
in the South African Republic, in-
struction was given only in Dutch in
the Government schools. The only
thanks uttered were the straightforward
words of Mr. Carl Jeppe, the Member
for Johannesburg , who , after the bill
had been passed, said:
"In the name of the inhabitants of
the Gold Fields, I thank the Government
and the Superintendent of Education
(Dr. Mansvelt) for what they have clone,
through this bill, for the Outlanders of
the Gold Fields."
The law regulating the establishment
and maintenance of the Johannesburg
Municipality also owes its existence
mainly to the President's influence.
The Second Volksraad and the people
behind it saw in this plan a disguised
carrying into effect of Chamberlain's
Home Rule scheme for the Witwaters-
rand. Even near members of Oom
Paul's family, persons who visited his
house daily, were among the most
violent agitators against this plan.
The President had foreseen this
opposition and continued, both in public
and in the home circle, so energetically
and indefatigably to defend the idea that
at last he won his cause after he had
pleaded it in the Second Volksraad also.
The instances here quoted are those
in which the Head of the State had
to battle most strenuously against
various currents. I could add hundreds
of cases of a less important character.
But I think I have shown sufficiently
that President Kruger always strove to
meet the Outlanders, and that, even
where the latter had spoiled the ground,
he smoothed it again with all the might
of his will, his character and his
influence with his people.
After the raid at Derdepoort in the
Rustenburg District, on the 25th of No-
vember 1899, at which eleven members
of the President's family were murdered
by the Linchwe Kaffirs, I again called
upon His Honour. Mrs. Kruger was
utterly crushed. The President himself
suppressed both sorrow and indignation,
in order to discuss plans with the
Executive Raad to put a stop to
these murders. He forced himself to
preserve an outward calm and was the
most composed of them all. Piet
Grobler and Hans Malan, his grandsons,
who were born in the Rustenburg
District, were excited and thought only
of reprisals. The President assured
them that the Linchwe Kaffirs should
be punished, but that the time was not
There you have the President:
immovable, firm in council, calm and
sensitive. A mighty influence proceeded
from him and electrified all his surround-
ings, all his people. That influence
showed itself notably in this long and
anxious time of struggle. Full of
confidence in God, Who alone could
save His people, he continued to believe,
resigned to defeat, thankful for victory.
He, the man who had shared all
the weal and woe of his people from
COINS OP THE SOUTH AFRICAN REPUBLIC. 1 and 2 are bronze, 3 to 8 silver, !) anil 10
gold. During the war, unstamped gold coins were in circulation.
EEROES OF THE BOER WAR
PRESIDENT KRUGER ON THE VERANDAH OF HIS HOUSE AT PRETORIA. Here,
at six o'clock in the morning, every caller was welcome.
his early youth, was forced to leave
his country. His age, his failing eye-
sight prevented him from fighting
amid his Transvaalers as he did in
1880. He was obliged to live far from
his wife, far from his house, in a
strange, chilly country, not all whose
sympathy could alleviate his pain. He
could do no more for his country and
his people but pray the live-long day.
Those who have known Kruger, the
indefatigable thinker and worker, at
Pretoria, cannot now picture his sorrowful
existence. His Bible is his only
OOM PAUL AND TANTE 8ANNA.
consolation: in Holland, the Good Book
never left his side. It is thence that
he draws his strength.
And Mrs. Kruger shared her husband's
conviction. When Mrs. A. D.W.Wolmarans
arrived in Holland from Pretoria, she
brought the grand old Kruger his
wife's assurance that she continued to
believe in the triumph of the republican
Oom Paul did not, however, like
the late General Joubert, stand in need
of the stimulation and encouragement
of his wife, however dear she might
be to him. He, with his giant nature,
was in every respect the stronger.
And yet he found it difficult to do
without Tante Sanna, as Mrs. Kruger
was called : her care, her devotion,
her old and tried dependence were so
dear to him. Nevertheless, he kept his
wife and politics apart, and would never
go to her for advice in affairs of State,
as Oom Piet nearly always did to Mrs.
Tante Sanna derived her strength
and her confidence from her husband,
and, next to her religion, it was his
resignation that gave her the courage
to bear the heavy losses which the
war had brought her. She was admir-
able in the way in which she looked
up to her husband and leant upon
She was dejected when the news
came that, in one of the early engage-
ments, ten of our burghers had been
killed. She still regarded the war in
the light of our old Kaffir fights,
where the Boers suffered hardly auy
loss, and, when Oom Paul observed
that she could think herself lucky if
the struggle did not cost 10,000 men,
she was silent and something seemed
to break within her. Not till that
moment had she realized what this war
was to mean.
She bore the death and maiming
of her children and grand-children with
resignation, for the sake of her countrv;
but the capture of two of her grand-
sons was long kept secret from her by
the President, because she, like most
Boers and Boer women, had more dread
of the fate of a prisoner of war than
of death on the battle-field.
In former years, Tante Sanna had
shared all dangers with her husband. She
bore all his sorrows with him, even
though she often did not know their
nature and only read them in his face.
She loved her country as well as he,
she knew her people as well as he
I have been unable to picture
President Kruger without Tante Sanna.
Each was the other's complement: he
iron in body and mind, she weak, with
her belief, firm as a rock, in him, with
her cares, which she is no longer able
to give him. She died at Pretoria on
the 19 th of July 1901.
THE DOPPER CHURCH AT PBETOBIA.
Immediately opposite the President's house , in
Church Street West, stands this church, built of
cheerful red brick adorned with sandstone. Here
President Kruger himself has often mounted the
pulpit to speak of God's Word to the cougre-
gation. The edifice was known in every-day
conversation as the "President's Church." It
was built in 1897, President Kruger contributing
I III. IIDII to the .-(.St.
M. T. STEIJN,
PRESIDENT OF THE OKANGE EREE STATE.
PRESIDENT M. T. STEIJN.
LIKE the late President Brand, Pre-
sident Steijn felt as much at home
in the dwelling of the poorest Boer as
in his own circle. When Steijn was
still a judge and went on circuit, he
loved to go and rest in the simple
dwellings where the Boer complained
to him of the drought and the locusts
and the wife talked to him of the
neighbours and the "folk." 1 To hold
simple converse with these people was
to him a relief from his official duties.
He talked politics with them, learnt
their ideas, their needs, and always
showed himself the born Africander,
free of all pride in his superior know-
To this intercourse the President
owed the fact that he was well-known
throughout his country and that he
remained simply "Teunis" even after he
had been elected Head of the Orange
Free State. Almost every Boer knew
1 The Kaffirs.
Steijn personally, and found it difficult
to talk of the "President," as is custom-
This wide-spread acquaintance, how-
ever, had its disadvantages. The
burgher who had a complaint to make
against the commissariat which refused
him a new suit of clothes, or the
commandant who refused to give him
leave, made his way to Bloemfontein
and laid his grievance before "Teunis,"
as he used to do in his own house.
The complainant was not justified as
against his superior: that would have
undermined prestige; but he never
went away uncomforted. If the Head
of the State only knew of it, changes
would be made. And then the Presi-
dent had such a fatherly way of soothing
and consoling that most of the mal-
contents derived a sense of resignation
from it and left the house with the
conviction that things were not so bad
after all and that, as a matter of fact,
the commissariat or the commandant was
HEROES OF THE BOER WAR.
in the right. But the hearing of all these
tales cost the President a great deal of time,
so that he generally had to work till
late at night.
The advantage of this personal
acquaintanceship was that Steijn, who
was a quick and excellent judge of
character, knew the good and bad
qualities of all his officers. This was
the reason why his choice of command-
ers was usually so excellent. This was
the reason why he was able to state
with decision that such and such a
commandant was not fit for his post.
This was the reason why he could deprive
an officer of his rank in the full con-
viction that he was doing right, as he
did on several occasions, by virtue of
the powers given him by the Consti-
The President was very rarely
mistaken. He discovered new talents,
and predicted the incapacity of command-
ers in whom the burghers had the
firmest confidence. De Wet and Hertzog
are instances of men upon whom he
depended when no one else as yet saw
anything in them. His knowledge of
character, of course, became more exten-
sive since, and we may taken it for
granted that he gathered the best coun-
cillors around him, just as De Wet
placed the strongest personalities at the
head of the several commandoes from
the moment when the appointment ot
all officers was placed in the hands of
the chief commandant and no longer
left to the choice of the burghers.
Steijn himself is the personification
of loyalty and honour. He is a loyal
burgher of his country, a loyal patriot,
a loyal friend. No matter how high he
might rise, his old friends, who had
been unable to follow him in his ascent
of the social ladder, could always reckon
on his affection. Loyalty and honour
have marked all his actions: his sacred
will to carry out his political programme;
his determination to take up the rifle
when the need was so urgent that the
country required the help of all, from
the highest to the lowest burgher; his
noble last attempt to ensure peace, when
war seemed no longer to be averted and
when he conducted his masterly corre-
spondence with the High Commissioner
at Cape Town.
He never allowed himself to be led
away by exasperation. He kept his
head cool during all the difficult days
from May 1899 to the outbreak of the
war. Had there been but one chance of
arriving at an honourable solution of the
difficulties, he would have seized upon
it and employed his powerful influence
in that direction.
He never showed himself hostile to
the English race; on the contrary, he
entertained friendly feelings for it, how-
ever true and genuine an Africander
he may be. He was the man who,
with his European education, his know-
ledge of the character of Boer and
Briton, could have brought about
the amalgamation of the two races in
South Africa. There was nothing he
would have rather seen. His loyalty
and honour, his lofty character pointed
to him as the right intermediary be-
tween Africander and Englishman. The
truth and honesty of his convictions
never gave cause for suspicion. And
now this man has been the soul of the
Africander resistance to the British rule.
His respect for Great Britain, his belief
in England's generosity: these he has
lost for ever.
He was never a daring optimist, like
his predecessor, Reitz. He foresaw that
there would be reverses. They did not
come upon him unexpectedly; and his
calm, firm belief in the greatness of
Africanderdom remained unshaken, even
in the face of uncontemplated disaster.
During his short political career,
President Steijn showed himself to be
a statesman who desired the progress
of his country and who was able to
further that progress. Under his govern-
ment, bills were passed for the institution
HEROES OF THE BOER WAR.
THE ORANGE FREE STATE NATIONAL ANTHEM.
Tempo >li marcia
Words by H. A. L. HAMELBERG.
Music by W. F. G. NICOLAI.
Translation by E. J.
1. Raise, raise, O bur-ghers, freedom's strain, Sing how our lit -tie
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PRESIDENT M. T. STEIJN.
From small things though our Land arose,
We boldly face the Future's throes:
To God our eyes we raise,
Who trust Him as a strong fortress,
Who build on Him, fear no distress,
Whom never storm dismays.
Into our hearts do Thou inspire
A warm and pure religious lire;
And make us, here on earth,
The battle-field for life above,
Grow t<> deserve that life of love,
Of happiness and worth.
Afire with love for our dear land,
We march as brothers hand in hand
Through Fortune's smiles or stress.
In trust and honour firmly bound,
As brothers we most surely found
The nation's happiness.
Should insolence our honour slight,
Or violence drive us to the fight,
Our tempered steel to prove,
Then go we forth as lions bold:
Our blood and goods as nought we hold
Beside the Land we love.
Protect, God, our country's Raad;
Wisdom divine to it impart,
Led by Thy father-hand,
So that its works may hallowed be
And blessed to the commonalty
And our dear mother-land.
Thy mercy and Thy love accord
To our dear President, O Lord;
Let him through Thee be great.
The duties which shall on him rest
May he discharge with trust and zest
For weal of folk and State.
With God for folk and fatherland!
This war-cry strengthens aye our hand
Even in the hottest fray.
The man who thus to arms doth fly
Has God, his buckler, him anigh,
Is sure to gain the day.
Then hail, thrice hail to our country,
Folk, President, Raad in unity!
Even as in our song,
May the Free State and all its folk,
Free from corroding vice's yoke,
Flourish for ages long.
and maintenance of technical schools,
a model farm and an agricultural
After deliberation with the German
Government, he secured the services of
an excellent economist, a German civil
servant, for the establishment of the
model farm. And, whenever this offi-
cial had to combat the antipathy of
some of the Boers for such novelties
and for all that smacked of theory, it
was President Steijn who supported the
economist, arranged everything accord-
ing to his wishes, and made him forget
any unpleasantness by his personal
It was the same with the govern-
ment veterinary surgeon, also a German;
the same with the rest of the European
officials. The President was their re-
fuge and their consolation. If this un-
happy war had never broken out,
through Steijn's influence a net-w r ork
of railways would have been built,
which would have made the eastern
districts the granary of all South Africa.
In peace and in war, Steijn has
shown himself a great man, a noble
In spite of his European education,
his easy ways, his pleasant manners,
which made him a welcome guest and
a popular host, he remained faithful to
the simple manners and customs of his
people. The mode of life was as plain
in Steijn's presidential residence at
Bloemfontein as in Kruger's house at
Pretoria. Steijn's house too was open
to every burgher. It was also the
meeting -place of the patres conscripti,
who came there to read and chat and
smoke when the business of the State
was done. His doors were always wide
open for foreign visitors, even as his
glance is open for all, as his honest
eyes reflect his loyal soul.
But, with all his simplicity, he showed
an innate distinction. His tall, broad
HEROES OF THE BOEB WAR.
figure, his bearing - , his movements mark
him out at once as an uncommon man.
He is never lost in a crowd; on the
contrary, the crowd as it were groups
itself around him.
The mutual relations between the
two Presidents were curious and inter-
esting. Kruger was the simple Boer,
grown grey in politics, hardened by a
life full of cares, privation and suffering.
Steijn was the educated, cultured man
of Europe. One had studied in the
school of theory, the other in that of
harsh practice. Steijn was the typical
representative of the younger Africander
generation which was one day to hold
sway; Kruger the venerable type of the
sturdy founders of two free nations.
Steijn showed his respect and esteem
for his grey-haired colleague. Whenever
he and the aged Kruger met, Steijn
would surround the latter with all the
care of a son for his old father. When
Kruger groped about painfully with his
hands and peered with difficulty from
between his swollen eye-lids, it was
President Steijn who would be the first
to spring from his chair and ask:
"What's President looking for?"
With touching care and gentleness,
he would give Oom Paul his arm to
help him in or out of his carriage, and,
Avhen the old President spoke, the
younger listened with genuine respect
and unfeigned attention.
The great love of both for their
country and people had brought them
so close together, those two men so
different in character and training. In
the sorrowful days of the Bloemfontein
Conference, the young President was
the elder's consolation. In those days,
their friendship grew into a life-long
There are some who call it folly
for the Orange Free State to have
thrown in her lot in the war with the
South African Republic. Even some
Free Staters were of this opinion,
especially when the fortunes of war
began to turn against the Boer. With
the "hands-uppers," President Steijn was
always to blame, if the word blame
may be spoken in this connection.
Those Free Staters forgot that the
offensive and defensive alliance con-
cluded with the South African Republic
after the Jameson Raid bound both
republics mutually to stand by one
another in case of war. They forgot
that the great majority of the people
of the Orange Free State and the South
African Republic had charged the ex-
ecutives of both States to contract this
bond. They forgot that, before the
outbreak of hostilities, the legislators
of the Free State had gone twice to
ask the opinion of their constituents,
and that these, with the exception of
a very small minority, had unanimously
declared in favour of aiding the South
African Republic by force of arms, if
war should become inevitable
One can understand that sheer egoists
condemn the action of the Free State.
But, wherever lofty and unselfish feel-
ings are valued, the attitude of the
Free State will be understood and
Steijn regarded not as a fool, but as
the true patriot, who furiously grasps
the sword when a people of his own
blood is attacked by a superior enemy,
when the existence of the Africanders
is in danger. For none will dare to
assert that the independence of the Free
State would not have been doomed so
soon as the South African Republic
had become British territory and the
land between the Vaal and Orange
Rivers bordered on every side b}*
British possessions. Apart, therefore,
from all questions of sentiment, the
resolve of the Free State to remain
free or to perish with the Transvaal is
to be defended from a purely political
point of view.
Steijn's noble figure stands out pro-
minently in the late contest. Even
Europe intuitively felt that he was the
soul of this heroic struggle of a small
W sar 1
BEROES OF THE BOEK WAR.
people for its inde-
pendence, and the
opponents of his
federal policy whole-
ledged his notable
adhesion to principles
for which he might
any day have been
called upon to sa-
crifice his life.
And yet his train-
ing was not such
as to inure him to
all the hardships
which he suffered and
is now suffering. At
an early age, he left
his country to qualify
as a lawyer in Hol-
land, but was called
to the bar in Lon-
don. On his return
to the Free State,
he set up as a bar-
rister, was appointed
a judge and, in 1896,
elected State Presi-
dent. The greater
part of his life, there-
fore, has been spent
not on the veldt and
in the open air, but
in offices and law-
It is a regrettable
but, alas, an unde-
niable symptom that
who enjoyed a cer-
tain measure of
the contest so soon
as their own property
was in danger. Many
of these well-to-do
burghers had all
of the moneyed
class and lacked the
PEESIDENT M. T. STEIJN.
spirit and power of endurance of the
ordinary Boers. Not so with President
Steijn. Cheerfully, on his departure
from Bloemfontein, on the evening of
the 12th of March 1900, he left all
his comforts, all his possessions behind
him. This was the first material sacri-
fice which his country, his people, his
liberty demanded of him, and he joy-
fully accepted his fate. After the occup-
ation of Kroonstad (12 May 1900), a
life of privation and wretchedness
commenced for him. But he retained
his spirits and, in adversity, set an
example to his burghers by the majesty
with which he bore all blows. He
compelled respect and admiration, and
in the Transvaal and Orange Free State
they believed in him as the man of
All who have lately returned from
the Free State bear enthusiastic witness
to the nobility of Steijn's figure in the
midst of all these hardships. Calm,
full of confidence in the future , he
continued with unshakable courage to
fight the good fight. He accepted dis-
aster and reverses with resignation and
good humour. Victories and successes
filled him with calm gratitude. And
ever he showed himself the first burgher
in the land. He maintained his author-
ity with natural dignity. The civil
government was in his hands, and he
endeavoured , in spite of the difficult
circumstances, to keep up the model
government which the Free State has
always enjoyed. He remained the refuge
of those who sought for justice, the
umpire of his subordinates, the father
of his burghers, the father of his
And an unhappy accident suddenly
broke the strength of this South Afric-
an Washington. A sunstroke brought
on an attack of paralysis, and, on
arriving, on the 9th of April 1902,
at Klerksdorp, where the conference
with the Transvaal Government was
to take place, he received news thai
his wife was lying seriously ill with
typhoid at Bloemfontein. Truly, Presi-
dent Steijn has been sorely tried: he
has been compelled to abandon the
ideal of freedom for which he fought
for nearly three years; he is perhaps
broken in health for life.
May a consoling ray of light still
break in upon the gloomy darkness
which surrounds this great and noble
figure! Such an end as that which now
threatens a grand career surpasses
commandant IV fc'OUElE of the Freestate
Dr. W. J. LEIJDS,
ENVOY EXTRAORDINARY AND MINISTER PLENIPOTENTIARY OE THE SOUTH
AFRICAN REPUBLIC IN EUROPE.
DR. W. J. LEIJDS.
"XX7E rusli into friendships on wings
^' when we are young, we go towards
them on crutches as we grow old."
So spoke Dr. Leijds during the
dinner which some intimate friends
gave in his honour at the Grand Hotel
at Pretoria, just before his departure
for Europe as Envoy Extraordinary
and Minister Plenipotentiary of the
South African Republic.
It was not a very large assembly
that sat down to dinner. Among
those present were high-placed officials
and simple burghers, faithful friends
all, who did not flatter Dr. Leijds from
self-seeking motives, nor seek his society
merely to be able to boast of his
Before he filled the high and re-
sponsible position of State Secretary, all
could approach Dr. Leijds who desired
to know him. Those who sought
him then did so for his own sake
alone; there was no need to question
their motives or distrust their sympathy.
But, when he rose in importance and
influence, he began to lose his blind
faith in humanity, to enquire into
motives and to probe protestations. Un-
fortunately for him, a trusted friend
had, at the very outset of his political
career, abused his confidence and shaken
his belief in the honesty of human
In later years, he lost another friend
through the firmness with which he
adhered to the cause he had sworn to
defend. He was taught by sad experien-
ces the value of unselfish, sincere and
honest friendship. Although his experi-
ences did not make him a misanthrope,
they saddened his whole life, changed
the young, high-spirited man, whose
heart beat in quick response to every
noble thought and ideal image, into the
serious man with the melancholy eyes;
the deep sadness in their expression would
strike you the instant you encountered
them, and haunt you for long after.
His flatterers increased in numbers: so
HEROES OF THE BOER WAR,
did his enemies; and his heart grew
cold, but never to those whom he had
proved his trusted friends. He repaid
their devotion by an equally strong
attachment, for he looked upon true
friendship as the greatest gift this
world could give.
His wife and children followed him
abroad: they were all that remained of
home; but it was an open question if
his difficult task in Europe would allow
him leisure to devote himself to his
in a fresh atmosphere of sincerity.
Those were literally "stolen moments"
which he was able now and then to
devote to his wife, his son and his
little daughter. He felt this keenly,
more than he allowed himself to show;
for Dr. Leijds is a most devoted hus-
band and an affectionate father. When
at Pretoria, he spent every minute he
could spare with his family.
He showed to the greatest advant-
age in his domestic relations, when he
GOVERNMENT BUILDINGS AT PRETORIA. These buildings contained the offices of the
State officials, as well as the Chambers in which the representatives of the nation used to hold their
sessions. The raised flag shows that the Chambers were sitting when the photograph was
taken. At that moment, 10.45 a.m., several members were on the balcony, engaged iu earnest
conversation during the quarter of an hour's respite allowed them from their labours.
family. Time showed that it did not.
During Dr. Leijds's residence in
Brussels, his duties kept him in close
attendance at the office, and, in his
capacity of ambassador, his absences
were long and frequent. And I can
easily understand that he, the man who,
by the aid of his own talents, mounted
to the position of eminence which he
filled, must often have longed to flee
the world of flatterers, to find, in the
intimacy of the home circle, a peaceful,
genuine affection, to breathe once more
could throw aside the trammels of his
official life and be a child among his
children. Dr. Leijds and his wife have
succeeded in suppressing in their children
any sign of arrogance or self-conceit
which might so easily have shown it-
self in them. He brings them up
strictly. They worship him; to them
the father is hero, teacher, friend. He
watches over the progress of their edu-
cation, takes the greatest pleasure in
talking to them on subjects likely to
interest and instruct them , and the
DR. W. .1. LEIJDS.
hours are always only too short which
they are able to spend in one another's
society. How they must have missed
those delightful times during the period
when he could only spare them a poor
little quarter of an hour now and again!
And all he will be able to leave
them is an unstained and honest name.
He is as scrupulous as Mr. A. D. W.
Wolmarans in guarding the unsullied
integrity of his reputation. Every
speculator in the Transvaal who was
is generally understood. His only aim
was to fulfil his arduous duties to the
best of his ability.
He is untiring in his capacity for
work. When other members of the
Government had retired for a well-earned
rest, he would still be found at work
with his confidential secretary or some
other official; and anyone who saw the
quickness with which he dispatched
business would realize the enormous
amount of the work he got through.
THE LAW COURTS AT PRETORIA.. This building was finished just before the
English occupied Pretoria (5 June 1900), but had never been used. The British turned it
into a hospital. In a short time, this large building was full of sick and wounded.
desirous of enriching himself at his
country's expense will bear witness to
this. Over and over again, his answer
to their solicitations has been:
"Do not reckon on my support; on
the contrary, be prepared for a deter-
mined resistance, for I do not consider
that your proposals are to the advant-
age of the country."
Such fearless independence made
him many enemies among those who
were always ready to abuse the Trans-
vaal Government; and he never took
the slightest pains to render himself
popular, in the sense in which the word
Verbosity of speech he held in special
abhorrence. He understood to perfection
the art of assuming an air of preoccupa-
tion when people attempted unwarrant-
ably to trespass on his time, and he would
adopt an ultra-formal manner which
discouraged the most persistent talker.
His eye seemed to penetrate to the
very soul of the person with whom he
was conversing, stripping speech of its
superficialities and often getting nearer
the core than the speaker intended.
Pretence and insincerity shrank away
abashed, when brought face to face with
this silent man, whose virile face showed
HKROKS OF TI1K 1JOK1! WAli
DASPOORT, near Pretoria, on the Pietersburg line. "Poort"
is the name given by the Africanders to aDy natural passage
between two mountains. The railway, which is hewn out of
the rock, offers a number of picturesque views. Pretoria lies
in a basin surrounded by mountains, which only afford narrow
entrances to the town. One of the five forts for the defence
of Pretoria stands at Daspoort.
no trace of the thoughts which moved
his mind. His answers to all business
questions were always so much to the
point that they needed no further
explanation; if there were no answer, a
polite word or two cut the matter short.
A Transvaal secretary of State
needed more time to accomplish thirty
or forty steps than the rest of mankind
require for a walk of many miles.
State Secretary Reitz once gave me a
most amusing description of incidents
that happened to him during a walk
from his office to the stairs (about fifty
paces) : it took an hour. He was besieged
at every step by people desirous of
speaking with him and detaining him.
Dr. Leijds always showed great tact
in suppressing importunate persons. He
walked past with an appearance
of such unapproachableness that
the most undaunted became
abashed and , in many cases,
went away without having found
courage to proffer their requests.
Once outside, he was assailed
by others who fancied they
would have a better oppor-
tunity for their proposals and
their gossip by waiting and way-
laying him outside than if they
went to the office. If many of
these gentry were loitering about,
Dr. Leijds left the office by a
private door. At the Grand
at Pretoria, where he
for a time during his
absence in Europe, he
special door by which
to escape the importunate.
Outside business-hours, Dr.
Leijds was a most charming
companion and an interesting
conversationalist, who laid aside
all bureaucratic formality with
Next to President Kruger.
it was Dr. Leijds who cried an
emphatic ''Halt'' to Mr. Cham-
berlain's political presumption:
what Oom Paul felt his State
Secretary put into very convincing
shape. His clever lead showed the
Executive Raad where they might follow
and skate lightly over the thin ice of
The grey- haired President felt for
Dr. Leijds an admiring respect, which
he never lost an opportunity of ac-
knowledging by word and deed. When
the latter, in 1897, returned from Europe,
where he had gone for reasons of
health, Oom Paul drove down to the
station in person to receive his first
and most valued official.
It is easily understood that the
activities of a diplomatist are no subject
for the town-crier. The extent and
exigencies of his very arduous task can
DR. W. J. LEIJDS.
never be appreciated to their full extent
by the outside world. However, as the
President, in his speech at the open-
ing of the Volksraad in 1809, expressed
his full approval of the exertions of the
embassy of the South African Republic,
Ave may rest assured that Dr. Leijds's
efforts, in spite of all difficulties, were
often crowned with success.
Another proof was the unanimous
"reinstallation" of the Embassy, the first
institution of which, in 1898, was
carried by only a small majority after
a heated debate.
The sole recreation which Dr. Leijds
permitted himself in his difficult vocation
was music. He plays the 'cello exceedingly
well, and is a passionate lover of the
musical art. He delights in taking
part in string quartettes at home. When
I last met him, he mentioned with regret
that, during the whole time of his embassy,
he had not once been able to take up
the bow. Ardent lovers of music will
understand what such a privation must
have meant to an enthusiast.
His life was one continual course
of uninterrupted work, care and endeav-
our; but his will-power and virility
carried him through triumphantly. He
sacrificed everything to his sense of
duty, although he gained in return
nothing but the thanks and appreciation
of the Government; for the others did
not see the fruits of his activity. Dis-
illusionment, opposition and calumny
were his portion. But, even as his
brother Boers were determined fight to
the last, so was he, as their Ambassador
in Europe, upheld by the integrity of
his motives and his love for his country,
resolved to strive against the intrigues
and treacheries of his adversaries until
all was either won or lost.
THE NEW ARCA.DIA BRIDGE AT PRETORIA. This bridge, always called the Lion
Bridge for convenience' sake, connects the old town with Arcadia, one of its suburbs.
Arcadia and Sunnyside are the two quarters which spread most quickly, one pretty villa
rising after the other. Here the wealthier inhabitants of the capital resided. The Arcadia
Bridge forms the end of Church Street East, which begins at the Church Square.
A. D. W. WOLMARANS,
FORMERLY A MEMBER OF THE EXECUTIVE RAAD OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN
REPUBLIC AND ALSO OF THE SPECIAL EMBASSY OF THE TWO
A. D. W. WOLMARANS
^EXT to President Kruger, A. D. W.
-^ Wolmarans was the most important
figure in the Transvaal political world:
a man of determined will, of extra-
ordinarily clear insight into difficult
questions, coupled with an amount of
common-sense that compelled respect,
with an innate oratorical talent, a general
ascendancy over his fellows and great
diplomatic gifts. He was Oom Paul's
right hand, and the only man who
could beat "Slim Piet" Joubert in
A. D. W. Wolmarans is known in
every-day life as "A. D. W." or "Danie."
There is but one "Danie," and that is
Danie Wolmarans. If you mentioned
that name in the South African Republic,
everyone would know that you meant no
other than the Member of the Executive
Raad, although he owns his Christian
name in common with thousands in
South Africa and with numbers of
He was one of the first persons
with whom I became acquainted in the
Transvaal, and, during all the years
of my stay in the country, I do not
remember to have seen him laugh
three times. Political troubles and
difficulties have made him so serious
as to deprive him of all cheerfulness.
Danie is a pessimist. Yet this is the
reason why he does everything with
all the application which he can devote
to it. His pessimism comes from his long
political career as a member of the
Legislative Body , where more was
demanded of him than of all the rest
of the Volksraad together. It is also a
result of indifferent health.
As a member of our legislature,
Danie's influence was so great that it
was exceptional for his proposals not
to be accepted. No committee was chosen
but Danie sat on it and became its
chairman and its very soul. His speeches
were followed attentively by all the
members, and never failed to influence
the further course of debate. His voice
HEROES OF THE BOEE WAR.
is not tine, but it is powerful; and,
although the turn of his phrases is
not above reproach, his language is
pithy and forcible, and his expression
persuasive, full of fire and conviction.
He could often be very sharp. He
always had a retort ready, and he
knew how to place his proposals in so
attractive a light that, though his
adversary felt certain of the victory,
Danie invariably succeeded in diverting
at least some of his adherents.
I have heard him press the late
Dr. H. J. Coster, at that time State
Attorney, so hard that the latter had
to confess that his advice had been
unsound. As a result of all this, there
was none but entertained a profound
respect for A. D. W.'s powerful and
Danie is a fanatic. R. K. Loveday,
Member of the First Raad for the
Barberton District, always found in him
an enemy who was too strong for him.
Loveday remained an Englishman at
heart and cared nothing for the in-
dependence of which A. D. W. was the
vigorous defender. Wolmarans felt
instinctively that, in the erstwhile
Briton, the country possessed an un-
commonly crafty and cautious enemy,
who, under the pretence of promoting
progress, worked into the hands of the
capitalists and constantly sided with
the sowers of discord. Hence Danie's
often too violent hatred for his colleague,
a hatred to which many a page in
the minutes of the First Volksraad
Still, Danie was no persecutor of
the British, as the words show which
he addressed to me when I met him
lately at the Hague and he told me
how the English had treated the Avomen
u You would almost hate all the
English after that."
So that he still draws a distinction
between the honest and the perfidious
In all questions of importance,
President Kruger found a powerful
assistance in Danie Wolmarans. While
he remained a member of the First
Volksraad, all, even the most desperate,
attempts to take over the Netherlands
LOADING UP AMMUNITION FOR THE TRANSVAAL ARTILLERY. The Boer is
never at a loss : if there are no oxen to move his waggon, he does it himself. They are
strong iron-fisted fellows, those giants of South Africa.
A. D. W. WOLMAkANS.
South African Railway Company, before
the Government was in a position itself
to work it satisfactorily, were frustrated ;
and, in the same way, all motions to
cancel dynamite -concessions, in cases
where no breach of contract could be
proved, were rejected. A. D. W. was
for progress, but for gradual progress,
not head over heels. "Look before you
leap" was always his motto.
General Joubert acknowledged
Danie's superiority. The general
seldom appeared in the Volksraad.
He only put in an appearance
when he was sent for or when
the debate involved some matter
of importance. In opinion he was
generally diametrically opposed to
A. D. W. and his followers. "Slim
Piet" had a habit of sitting calmly
in his chair and playing with a
sheet of paper on his desk before
him, when attacked by any other
than Danie Wolmarans. No sooner
did the latter rise, however, than
the general turned his head towards
the speaker, only looking down
occasionally to take a note for his
reply. This reply was usually
far from pleasant. Still I have
never seen the g-eneral emerge
victorious from one of those
wordy contests, although he was
considered an excellent debater.
Schalk Willem Burger, who
was an even older Member of the
Executive Raad than Danie, always
took sides with Joubert and, with him,
constituted the power in our Government;
this came to an end, however, so soon
as Danie, with his much more brillant
qualities, was elected to the Executive
Raad. In proportion as Schalk Burger,
who clung convulsively to General
Joubert, lost his influence, A. D. W.
became the same strong personality
in the governing body that he had, for
so many years, been in the legislative
body, the First Volksraad.
Politically, Schalk Burger did not
gain by his election as a member of the
Executive Raad, whereas Danie did.
The former was better suited as Chair-
man of the First Volksraad, while the
latter maintained his personality in his
new career: Schalk Burger failed in
this and lost his personal independence.
I remember hearing Dr. Leijds say,
at his farewell dinner at Pretoria, when
about to proceed to Europe as Minister
SCHALK WILLEM BURGER.
Plenipotentiary of the Transvaal, that
he had never endeavoured to make
himself popular. This is as true of
Danie. He is polite, but a man of
few words. To win anyone's favour, or
to make a good impression by means of
exceptional civility, does not lie in his
nature. He is passionate and sometimes
bitter in his passion. This fact, combined
with his continuous success and his
great influence, procured him enemies
and jealousies in the Volksraad. It is
due to this that he was never elected
HEROES OF THE BOER WAR.
Chairman, although he was undoubtedly
the ablest of the members and had been
Vice-chairman for many years.
Danie always felt wronged at these
elections. It was evident that they
pained him. Still he bore none of his
fellow-members any grudge.
No one has ever been able to
accuse A. D. W. of the very slightest
alleged to have accepted carriages as
presents, and this question was raised
in the Legislature by the accused
members themselves, Danie stated that
he too had been offered a carriage
after the concession had been granted.
He had refused, because he was of
opinion that a member of the Raad
should avoid even a semblance of
partiality in delivering his vote. Never-
theless, the members who had accepted
DEPARTURE OF THE HOLLANDER CORPS FROM PRETORIA: 6 October 1899.
There was not a foreigner in South Africa, with the exception of the British, who did not
take side with the Boers when war had once become inevitable. The Hollanders were the
first to form themselves into a corps, and they rendered invaluable services during the war.
act of dishonesty. He took scrupulous
care to keep his name unstained. Anyone
who knows the habits of the concession-
hunters in South Africa, their endeavours
to bribe all and several, can readily
imagine the offers that Danie must
have had made to him. But even his
greatest enemies are bound to allow
the strictness of his honour. At the
same time, he was in no way eager to
condemn others. When the Selati
Railway Company published its famous
list of members of the Raad who were
the gift had not, he thought, rendered
themselves in any way guilty of corrupt
conduct in doing so.
In the early months of the war,
Danie was President of the Commissariat
Committee. He used to start work
at half-past seven or eight in the
morning and I would often see a light
in his office-windows late at night:
"Oom Danie work, so look-out,''
the black constable thought it his duty
to observe to me, as he stood on
guard before Government Buildings and
A. I). \Y\ WOLMARANS.
noticed my glance at the light gleam-
ing through the drawn blinds.
In the daytime, I often saw A. D.W.
in the Church Square examining horses
or inspecting stubborn mules. If things
were not going as they should in Natal,
Danie would pay a visit to the invested
district, and soon everything was put
He was not on commando like
S chalk Burger. He could hardly be
spared on the Executive Raad, and not
at all on the Commissariat. It was
not until everything was in full working
order that it became possible to dispatch
him as a special envoy to Europe.
"Danie should see something of the
world; Danie must enlarge his views;
he is too tenacious of old notions and
That was the opinion of all admirers
of A. D. W's talent. Now the war
brought him his appointment as Envoy
Extraordinary. He travelled through
Europe and America, and came into con-
tact with every manner of man.
With all its horrors, the war has at
least done so much good. A. D. W.
will benefit more by his travels than
another would; for he is studious and
has quick powers of observation and
remarkable perspicacity. He is the
man of the future, and even Louis
Botha's successes in the field will not
be able to injure his reputation in that
CHURCH: SQUARE AT PRETORIA. On great Church festivals, such as Christmas Day,
Easter, etc., the Boers come to Pretoria in their ox-wagons, pitch their tents in the Cburcb
Square, and remain for several days. On Christmas and the following day, the large
Church Square is so crowded that there is scarcely room for a foot-passenger to make his way.
.JE FREE STATE D
THE SPECIAL EMBASSY OF THE TWO REPUBLICS.
FORMERLY PRESIDENT OF THE FREE STAT EMM GATE SAND A MEMBER OF
pORNELIS Wessels is the typical
^ South African squire. His house
was at Bloemfontein, but he preferred
to live on his estate near the town.
Fond as he is of riding and hunting,
he gave every attention to the manage-
ment of his property. He is a
"Boer" from top to toe, and proud
of it. His whole demeanour is charac-
terized by good breeding and shows
the sterling qualities of the Africander
to the best advantage. It is his ambi-
tion always to perfect himself; his pride
consists in not being too proud to learn.
He is thoroughly well-informed on all
political and economical questions, ab-
solutely at home in knotty problems
concerning South Africa, and, with all
these distractions, he found time to
manage his estate in such a way as to
find few or no rivals amongst his fellow
Wessels' father owned the greater
part of the De Beers property at Kim-
berley. He sold it for a considerable
sum. But, in spite of their wealth, the
Wessels remained thorough Africanders:
they invested their money in South
Africa; they bought farms, which they
worked with the utmost industry and
care. One of their estates is situated
at Paardenberg, where Cronje surren-
dered on the 27th of February 1900.
The Free State to a great extent owed
her expansion to their untiring efforts
for advancement and improvement. Their
example encouraged others to follow in
their steps, and, in a comparatively
short time, the country between the
Orange and Vaal Rivers excelled all
others in South Africa in point of
agriculture and cattle-breeding. The
Wessels, with their wealth and their
example, had developed the small sapling
into a mighty oak.
In 1898, Cornelis Wessels set out
on his travels to Europe and America.
He not only visited the large cities,
with their treasures of art and culture,
but lost no opportunity of seeing
as much as possible of the agricultural
districts. In this way he gained a
thorough insight into the husbandry and
cattle-breeding of foreign countries. He
bought highly-bred horses and cattle,
as well as the newest agricultural
machinery, and dreamed of countless
improvements on his estate and of
putting into practice the inventions of
Europe and of America. These travels
gave him insight and added seriousness
to his naturally earnest mind. He en-
countered riches and poverty, liberty
and oppression, the advancement and
demoralization of whole nations. The
healthy mind of the strong man gathered
these impressions and assimilated them.
And these experiences taught him what
was incumbent on the Free State: to
gain and keep the position which was
her due as one of the most promising
States in South Africa.
Wessels had no opportunity of ap-
plying his knowledge for the advantage
of his country. Just before the war
broke out, he was still in Europe. He
might have remained there in ease and
luxury, joined by wife and children,
and stayed abroad until the end of the
war. But a Wessels is always at his
post in the hour of danger. He was
too sincere an Africander, too honest a
man to hesitate a single instant. He
returned. Wessels possessed in a great
degree the power of control, not only,
as Chairman of the Volksraad, over his
associates, but, which is much more
important, over himself. This power
somehow made itself felt amid the
greatest parliamentary uproar of con-
tending factions. He was thus able to
control the passions which set heart and
brain on fire and which were but too
frequently calculated to lead to the most
The Volksraad was no longer sitting;
so he devoted his power, his time, his
means and his great gifts to the sacred
cause for which the Boers were fighting.
At the call of duty, he left wife,
daughter and his highly - gifted son,
the pride of his heart, alone, disconso-
late and unprotected, not knowing
whether he might ever see them again
nor to what dangers they might be
exposed during his absence.
He went to Europe as a member
of the special embassy. Again he trav-
elled through the Old World and the
New. He revisited the places he had
seen during his first journey, where his
oratorical gifts had full scope, for now
he was addressing not a few, but thou-
sands of eager, though not always
sympathetic listeners; for the opinion
of many had become biased by the
wrongful representations in the English
newspapers. He felt the contrast between
the first and this second visit most
keenly. The success of his speeches
was greatly due to his own fine sen-
sibilities. To make others feel one must
feel one's self. His audience were greatly
moved when, at the thought of the
wrongs, the oppressions and the cruel-
ties which his country was enduring,
his voice rose to a tragic intensity,
which culminated in Zola's words,
"J' accuse !"
To him was entrusted the defence
of a good cause, and he defended it
most loyally. He tore off the mask
from the face of hypocrisy and exposed
the vile lie in all its hideousness. As he
drew himself up to his full height, his
magnificent figure showed to the utmost
advantage, and there was true dignity
in gesture and voice, when he pointed
to the two other delegates and said:
"We are African Boers whom British
Jingoism delights in calling barbarian
and uncivilized savages. We stand
before you; our brothers are as we are:
judge you between us and our accusers."
Wessels has suffered severe pecuniary
loss in this war. All his thousands of
oxen, sheep and horses are gone. He
has not one left. The news arrived a
year ago that the last five hundred
head of cattle, which he had sent to
Cape Colony before the outbreak of
the war, had been seized by the British
authorities. Wessels took the news
calmly. It consoled him that he too
should in this way pay toll and tribute
to the mother-land.
FflBMFBTY \ MEMBER OF THE EXECUTIVE RAAD OF THE ORANGE FREE
STATE AND PRESIDENT OF THE SPECIAL EMBASSY OF THE TWO
AN amiable man is Mr. Fischer! That
is the impression which the Special
Envoy of the Orange Free State makes
on all who approach him. He looks
spiritual, standing between the two sturdy
Africanders, Wessels and Wolmarans.
He has a pleasant smile and word for
everybody , and at once promised
to become the most popular of the
three delegates. He is a good conversa-
tionalist, but, for all his vivacity, is
quite as well able to steer his own
course as Wolmarans or Wessels. His
distinguishing quality is tact.
Abraham Fischer was a member of
the Executive Raad of the Free State
and, by profession, a lawyer at Bloem-
fontein. He lived in a pretty villa on
the outskirts of the town, provided with
every comfort which the modern Boer
considers necessary and proper to the
social position which he occupies. He
was well - known as the owner of
beautiful horses; he had few rivals in
the taste and knowledge that he displayed
in their purchase; and, when in Europe,
had the pain of learning that his estate
was devastated, his villa dismantled, his
horses requisitioned, first by Lord Roberts
and then by other English officers; that
his linen and silver decorated the dinner-
table of the Military Governor of
the Orange River Colony: in short,
that all that of which he had been
so proud was wilfully and ruthlessly
The Free State Delegate submitted
to these trials with an equanimity
which compelled the admiration of
everybody who came into contact with
him. But then Fischer is an optimist,
whereas Wolmarans is, as we know, a
pessimist. At the time when the latter
felt that war was inevitable, the former's
belief in a friendly solution remained
unshakable: even when the South
HEROES OF THE BOEB WAR.
African Republic had given up all hope
and was preparing to send off her ulti-
matum, Fischer advised dela}% in order
to support President Steijn in his last
correspondence with Sir Alfred Milner,
a correspondence destined to lead to
nothing. President Kruger and the
Executive Raad of the Transvaal agreed
to the proposal, so that they might
not have to reproach themselves with
not doing all that in them lay to
prevent this unhappy war in South
Abraham Fischer constituted him-
self the optimistic apostle of peace.
During the Bloemfontein Conference, in
June 1899, he went again and again
from President Kruger's house to Sir
Alfred Milner's, and did everything in
his power to bring the parties to a
Calumny was abroad, whispering that
he was afraid of war, and was listened
to, as calumny is apt to be: a proof
how little even his own countrymen
knew him. His wife stayed at Pretoria
during the Conference, and many people
asked him why he had not kept her at
"Draw your own conclusions", he
said. "Either I have let my wife leave
the town because I consider the situation
in South Africa to be absolutely peaceful
and quiet, or else I have sent her to
Pretoria because, surrounded by a ring
of forts, she will be safer there than
she could be here."
His questioners were no wiser than
they were before they got this ambiguous
That is Fischer's way: an indiscreet
question leads to nothing with this adroit
jurist. If necessary, he will know how
to evade it, without committing himself
in any way. His cleverness and presence
of mind, his keen insight and, above
all, his charming personality built up
a practice which brought him great
Avealth; but all this was before the
war. Even President Steijn is not
more highly esteemed in the Orange
Free State than Abraham Fischer, the
"Politician." The terse and dignified
tone of President Steijn's correspondence
before the war betrayed Fischer's master-
hand, and his style is easily recognized
in many an official document which
left the Foreign Office at Pretoria during
the negociations. During the difficult
days preceding the 11th of October 1899,
he was constantly on the move, travelling
between Bloemfontein and the official
residence of the Transvaal, now inter-
viewing his own Government and Volks-
raad, now interviewing the parliament
of the Sister Republic. He implored and
admonished all the friends of President
Kruger and the Boers to exert their
influence to the utmost to prevent the
war which the Johannesburg capitalists
desired. The high officials of Bloem-
fontein and Pretoria were working day
and night, but Fischer was even more
indefatigable than any of them in his
efforts at reconciliation, never entirely
abandoning the hope that the desperate
and most bloody war might be
And when, at last, in spite of all
his efforts, he had to acknowledge that
war was inevitable, instead of being
cast down and mourning his shattered
illusions, he turned all his energy and
ability to the problems before him:
how to carry through this most lament-
able crisis to a satisfactory and, if
God willed it so, victorious conclusion.
The South African Republic owed much
to Fischer: no wonder that, when Dr.
Leyds retired as Secretary of State, all
eyes were turned towards the Member
of the Free State Executive Raad. Had
he accepted the canditature, he would
have had the united votes of the Volks-
raad. But he was too much attached
to Bloemfontein, to his Free State, to
exchange these for the thankless task
of becoming State Secretary of the
South African Republic. Pressure was
brought to bear upon Fischer, but in
vain: he preferred
to remain in the
place which had
seen him <n*o\v
The Trans vaalers
mourned his con-
stancy: the Free
the men of the
They perfected and
carried out the
by the two Pre-
sidents at their
meeting at Vil-
the election of
Judge M. T. Steijn
as Head of the
Orange Free State
in 1896. Public
attention was cen-
tred on the per-
sonalities of those
two men who,
during the act of
second in import-
ance only to the
two Heads of
State. Fischer is
his great know-
for his common-
sense, a quality
which he shares
rans is wanting
in learning, his
deficiency is amply
supplied by his
Free State col-
S. W. BURGER,
FORMERLY A MEMBER OP THE EXECUTIVE RA.AD AND ACTING PRESIDENT
OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN REPUBLIC.
SCHALK WILLEM BURGER.
8 CHALK Willem Burger is the man
of the Industrial Report of 1897,
which procured him the reputation,
among the capitalists of the Rand and
their followers , of being a very pro-
gressive Transvaaler, and which, among
many of his own countrymen, won
him a name for rashness. Not that
any impartial person for a moment
doubts Schalk Burger's sentiments to be
those of an ardent and upright Afric-
ander: he is as true a patriot as the
best of them; but it was manifest
from the Report that , as President of
the Industrial Commission, he had allow-
ed himself to be too much led by
his advising members, and that all that
advice had confused him. In short, the
report which he himself signed and
which was headed by his name
altogether reflected the opinion of the
self-seeking mining speculators. It even
contained inaccuracies which Schalk
afterwards cordially regretted.
At the time of the Industrial Re-
port, Burger was the man whose praises
were sung by the anti- Africander press.
Paul Kruger, the obstinate, must make
room at the presidential election for
Schalk Burger, the enlightened man,
who would bring unequalled prosperity
to the country, according to the ideas
of the millionaires , who were unable
to imagine any other form of prosperity
for the South African Republic than
that in which they gained the greatest
advantage. Stormy meetings were
held, verbatim reports of which were
published in the English papers. Schalk
Burger stumped the country, fol-
lowed wherever he went by a staff
of English journalists, who saw to the
puffing. But the Boers refused to be
caught. Schalk Burger and Joubert
together did not obtain as many votes
for the presidency as old Kruger alone.
The Boers saw a danger to their in-
dependence in the retinue of hostile
journalists and in the praises of the
Rhodes press. They did not ask
HEROES OF THE BOER WAR.
whether Schalk had demanded this ad-
vertisement, or whether it had come to
him unasked and undesired. They
condemned him because of it , and
Burger became its dupe. Even his
English protectors withdrew their sym-
pathy after he had suffered his defeat.
Schalk Burger , who had made his
first public appearance as a member of
the Executive Raad with the Industrial
Report, took greatly to heart the clear
proof of the people's distrust of his
policy. His appearance grew more
serious, and it seemed as though no
smile were ever again to brighten his
face. He wore a more sorrowful
air than of old. Schalk felt that he
had been wronged. Some of his ad-
versaries had, without rhyme or reason,
accused him of English sympathies;
and this embittered him. Thenceforward
he took sides more firmly than before
with General Joubert. He began to
seek his strength in Slim Piet, and
defended the latter when and wherever
he was attacked.
While the Bloemfontein Conference
was in progress, I went one after-
noon to President Kruger, who had
asked me to read to him the number
of the Volksstem containing a defence,
written by Joubert himself, of his
attitude on the franchise question.
A few days before the conference, the
general had allowed himself to be
interviewed by a reporter of the Jo-
hannesburg Star, and had declared
himself in favour of the extension of
full burgher rights after a five years'
residence in the country. Delivered on
the eve of the important conference,
this utterance was undiplomatic, to say
the least of it.
Oom Paul was at dinner. He sat
at the head of the table. On his right
sat Danie Wolmarans and on his left
Schalk Burger. I was given a chair
next to the President, between him and
"A bit slowly," asked the President.
I began to read: first General
Joubert's letter, and then the leading
article commenting on the letter. The
Volksstem attacked Oom Piet smartly.
Schalk Burger listened attentively,
with knife and fork in hand, and,
when I had finished, he immediately
began to find fault with the Volks-
stem for writing such misplaced articles
against the Vice-president at so serious
I was silent, because 1 did not
think it right to embark upon a dis-
cussion in the old President's presence.
Besides, neither Oom Paul nor A.D.W.
had uttered a word.
Schalk was of opinion that the
general was entitled to speak at any
time , especially as he was not taking
part in the conference. The Star
had continually urged that Oom Piet
should accompany the others to Bloem-
fontein, and Burger also seemed to
deplore his absence.
As soon as the war broke out,
Schalk Burger left with General Joubert
for Natal. He had formerly been
Commandant of the Lijdenburg District,
which he had also represented in the
First Volksraad , and he became a
general in the late struggle. He did
not distinguish himself particularly,
any more than in 1880 and 1881,
when he held the Lijdenburg garrison
invested during almost the whole War
of Independence without compelling
it to surrender to his superior force.
Schalk Burger has very great capacity
as an administrator, but he seems to
lack the necessary energy as a leader
in the field.
He is an excellent speaker and
compels the close attention of his
audience. His speech on the occasion
of the opening of the extraordinary
session of the Volksraad, in January 189 G,
immediately after the Jameson Raid,
will always live in Transvaal history
as a limpid utterance of the truest
VIEWS OF LIJDENBURG. Lijdenburg, in the East of the Transvaal, is the district where
the late Actirjg President of the South African Republic, Schalk Burger, was born. With
its high mountains, its luxuriant vegetation, and its many water-falls it is one of the loveliest
districts in the Transvaal. 2) Pilgrim's Rest is the centre of the Cape gold industry. 6) Market-
HEROES OF THE BOER WAR.
Dr. ELSBURGER Col. A. H. SCHIEL JUDGE COUNT
THE LATE GENERAL COUNT FIELD CORNET
J. H. M. KOCK ZEPPELIN POTGIETER
GENERAL KOCK AND HIS STAFF: THE HEROES OF ELANDSLAAGTE, 21 October
1899. J. H. M. Kock, the gallant old Transvaaler, Member of the Executive Raad, died
at Ladysmith , on the 31st of October 1899, of inflammation of the lungs contracted on
the field of battle, where he was wounded and lay long in the pouring rain before the
English ambulance found him. His illness was increased by sorrow at his defeat. His
son, Judge Kock, fell into the hands of the enemy, but was exchanged by General White
after his father's death. Count Zeppelin was killed after firing off all his ammunition and
eventually defending himself to the last against the charging Lancers with his whip.
Colonel A. H. Schiel was till the end of the war a prisoner at St. Helena. Albedyll succeeded
him in his command. With the exception of Potgieter and the lieutenant of the Transvaal
Artillery, who did not take part in the battle, the others are all members of the German
Corps, of which Dr. Elsburger stood at the head of the ambulance.
At such times, Schalk Burger was
in his element.
Schalk Burger, in every- day life, is
silent and as it were constantly sunk in
thought. The long, narrow face, waxen
in colour, crowned with the curly black
hair and ending in the dark goatee, was
generally lowered, as the lean and
slender figure in the frock-coat hurried
busily along. A single word, however,
and he would at once stop and listen
with complete attention to his inter-
locutor. He was short in his replies, for
he had no time to converse with people
at length, but everyone could be sure of
being civilly informed by him.
While the President, when travelling,
was always chatty and talkative, Schalk
Burger generally sat silent and intro-
spective. He had no lack of words,
however, in the Volksraad, when ad-
dressing the members. Then he was
as fluent as you please , never had to
pause for a word , and his speeches
were both lucid and powerful.
As Chairman of the First Volks-
raad, he ruled debate in a manner to
which none other has attained. He
was strict, permitted no unparliamentary
expressions to be used , and at once
suppressed any departure from the rules
of the assembly. The Raad owed it
to him that, during his chairmanship,
the sittings were shorter and more
business was done than in later years.
That chairmanship was the best time
SCHALK WTLLEM BITRGKR.
of Schalk Burger's life. Then, all
honoured him. Then, all Lijdenburg
was proud of its member.
No sooner, however, was he elected
a member of the Executive Raad, than
he became too progressive. His clear
intelligence had long shown him that
the Transvaal, with her many foreigners,
had become a different country, and
that it was no longer practical to
maintain patriarchal laws which had
been made exclusively for a nation of
farmers. Those laws must be revised.
As a member of the Volksraad, he had
worked zealously towards this object-
As a member of the Government, he
wished to go further and went too
far. As Chairman of the Industrial
Commission, he had taken upon himself
a task which was above his powers,
and it was very easy for the experts,
his advising members, to lead him off
the scent with all sorts of sophisms.
Schalk at that time was still too
willing to believe that all men were
as honest, honourable and upright as
He was ill able to keep his own
counsel. He spoke when he saw or
heard anything that appeared wrong in
his eyes, and showed dislike for anyone
to whom he could not show respect.
He was as strict with himself as
with others. He knew no relaxation.
He devoted his life to his country.
He worked with uninterrupted zeal,
and was always prepared, even after a
tiring day, to enlighten committees of
the Volksraad on Government matters.
He never gave an opinion before making
a thorough investigation , and yet he
often based his opinions on those of
others, because he was easily influenced.
His character and will are not so strong
as those of Danie Wolmarans, but, on
the other hand, he has gifts which are
superior to A.D.W.'s. He is a better
administrator, and knows better how to
manage people. He is unquestionably
a capable statesman, and yet the only
reason why he was temporarily appointed
to fill the presidency was that he and
State Secretary Reitz were the only
remaining members of the Executive
Raad. Piet Joubert died on the 27th
of March 1900; Jan H. M. Kock
succumbed, on the 31st of October 1899,
to the wounds received at Elandslaagte
ten days before; Piet Cronje was a
prisoner at St. Helena ; and Danie
Wolmarans was in Europe.
GENERAL TOBIAS SMUTS OF THE TKANSVAAE.
F. W. REITZ,
FORMERLY STATE SECRETARY OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN REPUBLIC.
F. W. REITZ.
A true patriot is this genuine Africander,
whose grey hair and beard contrast
so strikingly with his heart full of
youthful fire and animation.
State Secretary Reitz was proud to
see his two sons come from Bloem-
fontein to be among the first to take
the field with the Pretoria contingent.
Calmly, with no expression on his
face but that of paternal love and
pride, he stood on the steps of
Government Buildings and watched his
children ride away to fight for African
liberty. They were still children, those
two sons of his. When they wrote to
him of their determination to go on
commando, he answered that the time
had not yet come for them to fight for
their country, that they were still too
young. But they threw their father's
admonition to the winds and came
to Pretoria. He looked at them proudly:
he recognized in them his own spirit,
his own blood.
And later, when the first Nether-
lands ambulance arrived at Pretoria,
our State Secretary was present at the
railway -station, not only to welcome
this aid from abroad in the name of
his Government, but also to meet his
eldest son, who had forsaken his studies
in Holland now that his country was
"That's right, my lad," he said,
with a pressure of the hand that told
all the rest.
I stood close beside him and
realized at that moment that our second
Government official was one of those
Africanders who would go on fighting
till the overwhelming attack on their
independence was beaten off or sub-
jected them. And I was not surprised,
therefore, when I heard that he had
himself taken up the Mauser at a time
when it was more than ever a case
of life and death with the Republics:
"If a people deserves freedom," he
L. J. S. MALAN,
I,. J. S. MALAN, the editor of "0« Land" at Cape Town, was, in i 90 ^ 1 ^* '"^^as"
the Cape Parliament instead of Schreiner, the ex-Prime Minister. Soon fter he was
sentenced to 12 months' imprisonment for reprinting from English papers details concerning
General French's action in the Heidelberg District.
F. W. RELTZ.
wrote, "it deserves to fight for that
And he signed the maxim with rifle
Reitz is a poet. Dry statesmanship,
political worries have not been able to
kill his love for all that is noble and
beautiful. He even looked for poetry
in politics, seeking to realize the words
of the Dutch poet:
Poetry is everywhere, all the world
The question is, by whom she may,
and by whom not, be found.
He, the poet, found her. When
Olive Schreiner wrote her noble defence
of the Africander cause, her Words in
Season, he became enthusiastic and,
in his admiration for the inspiring style,
had the work translated into Dutch and
spread broadcast over South Africa. He
himself found time to bestow his literary
gifts on a revision of the translation.
A Century of Wrong, that long
list of bitter accusations against the
British Government, is a second attempt
in that direction, to convince the mul-
titude by means of the poetic word.
True, this pamphlet is for a great part
the work of the young State Attorney
and Assistant Commandant General,
J. C. Smuts, but it clearly betrays the in-
spiration of the State Secretary, who
conceived the scheme of the volume.
And, shortly before the war, appeared
his open letter to his friend Blignaut,
that old and tried official, the Government
Secretary of the Orange Free State. That
open letter was the cry of anguish of
a man who saw days of suffering dawning
for his people, but who also felt that
the immediate future would prove to
be that period of suffering through which
every nation must pass before it be-
comes really great and independent. That
letter was the ardent and inspired utter-
ance of an upright, honest love of his
Reitz made a noble endeavour, and
his mighty voice still rang out in his
writings through the clash of arms. He
can take pride to himself for having
helped to enlighten public opinion in
Europe and to explain away misconcep-
tions on the Continent. None of the
high-placed persons in the South African
Republic has done more than he to
bring to a better way of thinking people
whose ideas were obscured by the
deliberate lying of the Jingo press.
For that purpose he could always find
time; and whatsoever person of any
importance that visited the Transvaal
capital could always be sure of finding
in State Secretary Reitz one who was
ready to listen to him for hours and
afford him all the information that
he was able and at liberty to give. If
he was busy by day, then the visitor
would be his guest in the evening, and
he himself would sit up working late
at night to make up for the time lost.
Everyone esteemed in Reitz the kindest
and most courteous of men.
Hundreds have betrayed this confi-
dence placed in them by the State
Secretary, and have gone home and
continued to slander the country where
they enjoyed an hospitality which
asked for nothing in return but that
the truth should be told. They have
mocked at his enthusiastic patriotism.
They have made fun of his too great
optimism. They have ascribed to
weakness of intellect his noble animation
for the future of his people. They have
twisted hiswordsandemployedthem in the
service of lies to excite men's passions
still further. They have repaid his civil-
ity, his courtesy, his hospitality, his
pains, his kindly exertions with taunts,
sneers and calumnies.
Any other man would long have
abandoned his efforts to bring others
to repentance. Not so Reitz: with his
noble and joyous nature, he persisted
with a tough determination which none
would have suspected in him, and which
he himself began to show only when his
all-controlling patriotism made persistence
HEROES OF TIIK BOEE WAR.
necessary. He started from the very
sound stand-point that it is better to
be deceived in ten people and bring one
to repentance than leave all the eleven
in darkness. His attachment to this
theory, despite his many disappointments,
certainly pointed to a sacred enthusiasm
for the rightfulness of the Africander
The English Jingoes at Johannes-
burg were deceived by their under-
estimate of this enthusiasm. In 1897,
when Reitz was elected, they thought
that the new State Secretary would
prove to be as feeble in character as
he was in frame, and that his well-
known good -nature would become an
instrument in their hands. They were
mistaken. He remained good-natured,
sometimes too good-natured, but his
kindliness cooled so soon as his love
for the Africander people was called
into question. This was soon made
clear to the Jingo breed, who there-
upon began to attack and vilify the
man whom they had but lately flattered.
All the Rhodesian papers in South
Africa fell upon him, fiercely, insolently,
libelling him and defiling his loyal,
honest character, only because they had
found him to be a steadfast, zealous
Africander who refused to be bought
by Jingo flattery. Reitz forgave them
their personal attacks: he considered
those beneath his notice. But what he
never forgave was the campaign of
calumny which was waged only in
order to bring down a cruel war
upon South Africa. So soon as he
began to speak of the politics of the
Rhodes press, he lost all self-control.
The State Secretary was popular
throughout South Africa and owed his
popularity to his kindliness, to his good-
humoured cheerfulness, to his enthusiasm
for noble and beautiful things. But
what arouses one's surprise is that, in
the midst of all the cares of State,
he was able to keep these character-
istics uusullied. Whatever troubles and
worries the day might bring with it,
no promise to deliver a literary lecture,
DEPARTURE OF THE GERMAN COMMANDO FROM PRETORIA. The sympathy of
the Germans with the Boers was as keen as that of the Hollanders. The commando was dis-
tinguished for the energy and endurance of its men.
F. W. REITZ.
BURGOMASTER SCHUTTE OF JOHANNESBURG WITNESSING THE DEPARTURE OF
THE BURGHERS : 4 November 1899.
or take the chair at a festive meeting,
was allowed to suffer, nor did any one
ever notice by his voice, by any failing
in the spoken word, or decrease of
cheerfulness or friendliness in the State
Secretary's person, that an hour or two
earlier he had been leading a serious
discussion in the Executive Raad on
one of the notorious Chamberlain dis-
patches. And it was his innate good-
nature, rather than his diplomatic attain-
ments, that enabled him to retain this
equanimity. He could never bring him-
self to disappoint other people, and was
always ready to sacrifice himself for
their enjoyment or happiness.
But woe to him who came into
collision with his sensitive patriotism!
He never refused a word of kindness
until he had discovered that his cour-
tesy was being wasted on one unworthy
of it, on one, in other words, who in-
sulted his people and desired the de-
struction of the country. Then he be-
came angry and rough, and reproached
the offender in very plain-spoken terms.
His good-heartedness cost him an
unspeakable amount of time, because it
went against the grain with him to
cut short one who was long of speech,
or to refuse to listen to any that
wished to speak to him. This leading
trait in his character was also shown
in his attitude towards his subordinates,
whom he treated with the greatest hu-
manity, and wdiose interests he was al-
ways ready to champion in the Volks-
raad or Executive Raad.
Like all Africanders, he was very
confiding. He thought that none could
be less genuine than himself, and he
refused to believe in others' dishonesty
before he had certain proofs. The only
exceptions were Sir Alfred Milner and .Mr.
Chamberlain, whom Reitz saw through
from the commencement. His love of
his country caused him instinctively to
suspectthese statement warlike intentions.
Reitz was one of the first to entertain
the conviction that, if the Bloemfontein
Conference miscarried, war was bound
HEROES OF THE BOER WAR.
Yet he retained the mastery over
himself throughout the negociations: not
for a moment did he allow himself to
be carried away by the passions of
others. He was determined to preserve
his conscience against the reproach of
having, through over-haste, played into
Mr. Chamberlain's hands. This modera-
tion was all the more noticeable in the
hot-brained Reitz. But he felt the
responsibilities of his office, and, with
all the power of his strong will, sup-
pressed his rage and excitement. He
shuddered before the bloodshed that
loomed before his vision. He was firmly
convinced that the war would set all
South Africa aflame, and that is why
he determined to do all in his power
to prevent that the dispute with Eng-
land should be referred to the ordeal
Shortly after the outbreak of hostil-
ities, I was paying my daily visit to
the State Secretary. The news had
come in that the Boers in Cape Colony
had joined the Federal forces in large
numbers. The conversation turned on
this subject, and Reitz said:
"I have never ceased to represent to
the British that a war with the South
African Republic meant a struggle with
the whole Africander race, the Pan-
Africander war, which was represented
in England as a ridiculous and alarmist
bogie, because the Africanders in Cape
Colony were content to live under British
rule. I agree; but the English forget
that our brother Africanders cannot
passively look on while we are being
exterminated and robbed of our liberty,
the only thing to which we cling. It
is not we who desired this struggle
of the Africanders against England; but
irresponsible persons in South Africa
and ministers in England have set the
feelings of the Africanders at defiance,
and blood is thicker than water."
Reitz is a fanatic. His belief in the
triumph of the Boers was constant. He
did not argue about it; he did not
endeavour to prove its correctness: he
simply believed and doubted not. He
THE JOHANNESBURG POLICE (VAN DAM'S COMMANDO) OFF TO THE FRONT: 26
October 1899. No commando behaved more gallantly in the war than the Johannesburg
Police, which, with the other police and the State Artillery, formed the standing army of
the country. Originally the Johannesburg Police numbered over a thousand men. After the
Battle of Dalmanutha (?3 — 27 August 1900) their strength was reduced to less than two hundred.
They were the corps cVilile of the Transvaal Boers.
F. \\\ REITZ.
left Pretoria on the 2nd of June 1900,
and was of good cheer, certain that he
would return, and that the Transvaal
Vierkleur would wave once more over
Government Buildings. Whencesoever
he might be driven, he firmly believed
that he would return. His spirit was
not to be broken, nor was his faith to
be shaken. He accepted his fate, not
with resignation, but joyfully. He did
not complain, but simply said;
"What God does is well done!"
The struggle did not unnerve him:
reverses but strengthened his convic-
tion. He was able to communicate this
conviction to others. His faith was so
firm that the unbelievers and doubters
at last began to embrace some of his
He wrote, in August 1901, to his
wife in Holland that he was well and
of good courage. He could not be
otherwise. All the misery, all the
failures to overcome a superior force
he treated as passing matters. For him
it was irretrievably written that Africa
should one day belong to the African-
ders. In this fact he believed as firmly
as, Christian that he is, he believes
in a world to come. And therefore
he fought, without flinching. There-
fore he retained his cheerfulness, his
kindliness, amidst all his country's de-
feats. Therefore, too, he was an in-
spiriting force at that moment of ad-
versity for the Transvaalers.
Reitz had become more closely
united with the humblest of the Boers,
because he was as poor as any of them.
He possessed nothing on earth but his
Mauser. With the simplest burgher,
he had to look to the commissariat for
his clothes, his food, his tobacco. He
was ready to suffer hunger with them,
to share their poverty and privations,
their misery and their cares, because he
loved his country and his people with
a passion that nothing could allay.
TRANSVAAL HOWITZER MADE AT PRETORIA.
THE LATE P. J. JOUBERT,
niMMAMIANT GENERAL AND VICE-PRESIDENT OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN
THK LATH COMMANDANT GENERAL P. J. JOUBERT.
SPHERE are, alas, many people in
■*- Europe who believe that Slim Piet,
as General Joubert was usually called
by the Boers, was a traitor. This
assertion has always made a painful
impression upon me. Joubert, who
will ever remain a proud figure in the
history of the South African Republic,
did not deserve of his country and
people that he should be slandered now
that he is no longer there to defend
But the present great men of the
Transvaal and the Orange Free State
have continued to believe in Slim Piet.
Men like President Steijn , General
Botha, De la Rey and Beijers have never
ceased to recognize General Joubert's
military capacity, although several of
them were his political opponents.
It must be admitted that, in full
time of peace, Slim Piet's appearance
was not sympathetic. His high, piping
voice, his small, beady eyes, the sly
smile that played about his mouth
gave him an air of falseness which
made an unpleasant impression and,
rightly or wrongly, prejudiced many
persons against him. Besides, his
character was not open and square like
that, for instance, of Koos De la Rey.
He was essentially a trimmer, liked to
remain on good terms with friend and
foe, and ended by estranging both.
But, when his land and liberty were
in danger, Joubert was as honest and
true as the best patriot. He long
advised the Government to yield to
the British demands; but, when the
offer of a five years' franchise was
declined by the British Government,
with an arrogant declaration that then'
were other questions to be solved besides
the franchise; when, on the 8th of
September 1899, the British Government
sent its dispatch, which was called an
ultimatum by the English press; when
the news came that another 10,000 men
were to be shipped to South Africa,
then General Joubert too abandoned all
HEROES OF THE BOER WAR,
hope of an amicable settlement to the
diplomatic situation. Thenceforward
he was bound to agree with them who
had said from the commencement that
the men in Downing Street wanted
war and nothing else. From that
moment, Joubert made his preparations
for the great struggle which was on
the point of bursting out. In the
Transvaal capital there remained no
official persons who believed in a peaceful
solution; but also there was none but
hoped that the catastrophe might still
be averted. It was in those days that
Oom Piet wrote his touching letter to
England's great and honoured Queen.
I do not know that he expected much
good to come of his prayer for aid to
that august lady. It would have been
different, he thought, if she had been
able to read his cry of anguish in
those anxious days — for like all Afric-
anders he had a sacred respect for the
"Old Lady" — but he felt that his
letter would probably never reach her
hands. And yet he would leave
nothing undone that might save the
And so a few more days passed,
until the end of September approached.
News came to Pretoria that the British
military posts had been pushed forward
from Ladysmith to Glencoe and Dundee.
The danger of a collision, under the
pre vailing excitement, became very great,
owing to the presence of a strong
British force on the Transvaal frontier.
The British orders were given on the
24 th of September. The Natal Cabinet
had already given warning that such
an act could not be understood by the
Boers save as a declaration of war.
The Transvaal Volksraad at once,
clearly and without concealment, ex-
pressed its surprise at this act. General
Joubert still waited; but, at the end of
the last week of September, it became
necessary to guard the Transvaal frontier,
and, when war was declared on the 11th
of October, he too, the old man, set
out to lead the military operations in
Natal in person.
For days and nights, during the
previous week, he had worked at his
plan of campaign, which was not destined,
however, to be carried out. The great
council of Avar held at Newcastle deter-
mined at once to attack and render inef-
fective the Dundee garrison, and next
to march on Ladysmith. In vain the
general pleaded in favour of his plan to
leave a sufficient number of covering
men and guns in the Drakensberg
passes and to march with the main
force to Pietermaritzburg, which would
compel the garrisons of Dundee and
Ladysmith to venture out on the open
veldt for the defence of the Natal capital.
The spirit among the Boer officiers
in general was too eager for them
to consent to march so far before
coming into touch with the enemy.
Besides, the Pretoria Government feared
lest the English should cross the
frontier, once they were behind the
back of Joubert's army. And, since,
at that time , every officer had an
equal vote in the council of war with
the Commandant General himself, Jou-
bert's plan was rejected.
Joubert did not permit himself to
be for a moment cast down. Fortified
by his patriotism, he forgot this rebuff
and continued to devote himself, with
all his great talents, his iron industry
and his clear brain, to his difficult task
Once again he displayed his tactical
excellence in the investment of Lady-
smith. That the British stronghold
did not fall was not his fault. Each
time he planned an attack by storm,
the women of the Transvaal and Free
State were seized with terror, and all
the influence of high and low alike
was employed to counteract the plan.
Joubert had to fight against all this
influence and opposition, while his
adversaries were ever ready to criticize
and condemn his acts.
HEROES OF THE BOEB WAS
GENERAL J HUBERT WITH HIS SON-IN-LAW, MALAN, AND HIS SECRETARY,
liUACHT, IN HIS TENT BEFORE LADYSMITH.
In his clay, he had to reckon with all
soils of currents and circumstances which,
in later days, were lost in the power-
ful stream of all-sacrificing patriotism
that then animated the Boer combat-
ants. The elements which afterwards
fell out of the ranks were those which
had always opposed Joubert. They
valued their precious bodies above the
sacred cause of liberty, and, where their
lives were in danger, despised no means
of ensuring their safety.
Joubert, the old hero of the War of
Independence, was pained by all those
THE LATE COMMANDANT GENERAL 1'. .1. JOUBERT.
events. His heart
bled when lie, the
prudent man, was
accused of reck-
human life, sis,
for instance, on
the occasion of
the famous march
to Estcourt, in
with its masterly
men. And I am con-
vinced that all the
opposition was to a
great extent the
cause of his death.
It certainly accent-
uated the dis-
order from which
Even on his
death - bed , he
thought of no-
thing but his coun-
try. He probably
feared that the
same silent forces
which had always
opposed him would
continue to make
after his death;
and Joubert insist-
ed that Louis
Botha, his political
opponent, but a
and very talented
leader, should be
in his place. And
this is the patriot
whom some call
that I could inspii
d- ° B - »
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his detractors with my faith in his constant loyalty
HEROES OK THE BOEB WAR.
It is doubtful whether a man will
ever again arise in either Republic with
General Joubert's talent for projecting
a plan of campaign. Even Louis Botha
must acknowledge his deceased prede-
cessor as his master. Joubert's plans and
the manner of their execution always
won him admirers in the council of
war. His great plan for the invasion
of Natal was perhaps the only one,
during the whole course of his long
and famous military career, to be
rejected. He knew how to explain his
plans in such a way that they were
almost always accepted with unanimity.
THE ARTILLERY BARRACKS AT PRETORIA. After the Jameson Raid,
(31 December lt95), the Transvaal Government wisely decided to provide the
Artillery with modern guns, and to enlarge the corps. This was done gradually,
and the best guns that money could buy were purchased. These barracks had
only been in use since a short while. The monument to the right, in front, was
erected to the memory of Major H. Pretorius, the first commander of the Artillery.
But he was a pessimist. After the
Battle of Elandslaagte, on the 21st of
October 1899, he wrote to the Govern-
ment at Pretoria that the Africanders
had never suffered so great a defeat.
Is it a matter for wonder, then, that
he almost gave up courage when one
reverse after the other struck the Boers;
when Cronje was driven from his
position at Magersfontein, on the 15th
of February 1900, and, twelve days
later, surrendered with 3,500 men; when
General Buller occupied Pieters Hill
on the 27th of February and the Boers
in Natal were seized with panic?
Another general would probably have
made a desperate attempt to recover
Pieters Hill. Joubert was crushed, was
utterly dejected. He made no effort
to stop the flight of the burghers.
On the contrary, he was one of the
first, on the following day, to break
up the siege of Ladysmith with his
laager. This his enemies never forgave
him. But they forgot to take into account
the fact that constant opposition and ill-
luck had undermined General Joubert's
character, which was never a strong one.
He required cheering and encouragement.
In earlier days, it was his wife, the
stronger mind of the two, who used to
with a single
word. One need
but remember the
of the 27th of
when Mrs. Jou-
bert called the
burghers to arms
while the general
was still dismayed
by the discovery
that Majuba Hill
was occupied by
And yet Slim
Piet was no cow-
ard, as might
appear to be suggested by the above.
In times of need, he feared no danger.
He could retain his calm with shells
bursting around him. No bombs nor
bullets could make him retreat when
it was necessary that he should stand
his ground. He had all the fanaticism
of the old Boers:
"If it is not God's will that I be
touched, the bullets will not harm me."
General Joubert had a fatherly
care for his burghers. He did not
give them an easy time of it His
adjutants will bear witness to that:
they had but little rest. But he
never led them into unnecessary danger.
i t" 1
CD I— <
HEROES OF THE l'.OEU WAK.
He was as sparing of his men's lives
as though those lives were his own. And
he treated those best who worked hardest.
He could send lamentations to Pretoria,
day after day, on this matter or that.
But he did not complain on his own
behalf: only on that of the burghers
"The English could have no better
ally than the man who bakes the
bread for the laagers," he once wrote
to the Government. "The contractor,
it seems to me, wants to poison my
punished. The neutrals in Natal soon
came to know that Joubert was inexo-
rably strict in this respect, and they
complained to him in full confidence
whenever any of their property had
been taken by the burghers. The old
general took care that it should berestored
whenever possible; and, if not, the
damage was invariably made good to
them. Then what a penitential sermon
Joubert would read the offender! The
miscreant used to feel more humiliated
by those words than by the punishment
that followed, and would think twice
CAMP OF THE FIELD TELEORAPH-CORPS OF THE TRANSVAAL ARTILLERY UNDER
FIRST LIEUTENANT P. C PAFF. This corps was excellently equipped. It possessed the best
and latest instruments, and did invaluable service to the Boer forces. It was remarkable
how quickly the Boers mastered all the details of field telegraphy.
This concern for their welfare won
the hearts of the Boers, who knew
that, if they came to the general with a
serious complaint, they would be helped.
But woe to them if they did anything
that conflicted with civilized methods
of warfare! The looting at Newcastle,
when Natal was invaded in October
1899, roused Joubert's fury. Certain high-
placed and influential persons who had
looked on passively were sent home in
disgrace. He would not tolerate them
in his sight. And he declared that,
thenceforth, all looting would be severelv
before he again attempted to take what
was not his.
Despite his advanced years, Joubert
was capable of developing an extra-
ordinary amount of industry. For that
matter, his whole appearance was that of a
hale and hearty man, stalwart, with a
springy step , and an irreproachable
horseman. He was able to work with
his secretary till a late hour at night,
and in the morning, at day-break, he
would again be up and doing. He was
as watchful as the youngest of them all
No enemy would ever surprise his laager.
THE LATE COMMANDANT GENERAL P. .1. JOUBERT.
As a politician, Joubert was neither
so eminent nor so capable as he showed
himself as a commander. He never
clearly saw his political line before
him. He always hesitated. But he
was skilful in debate. There was only
one man in the Volksraad who could
beat him on this field, and that was
Joubert's enemies and adversaries
may say of him what they please: he
was and will always remain a striking
figure in the history of the South
ROCKET SIGNALS. Ladysmith was in sore straits during the latter part of the siege: unless help arrived
without delay, the town was hound to surrender. As the captain of a sinking ship sends up rocket after
rocktt in the hope of succour, so General White signalled night after night to Buller.
GENERAL P. A. CRONJE,
FORMERLY A MEMBER OF THE EXECUTIVE RAAD OF 'THE SOUTH AFRICAN
REPUBLIC AND SUPERINTENDENT OF NATIVES.
GENERAL P. A. CRONJE.
A court-martial was being held at
Magersfontein, south of Kimberley.
P. A. Cronje, called Piet Cronje for short,
dressed in his big, faded green overcoat,
surmounted by a fanciful hat decorated
with short ostrich-feathers, sat on the
top of the trench where the members
were assembled. A commandant of the
Free State who had been guilty of
insubordination towards a superior
officer was on his defence. Before the
commencement of the examination, a
question arose between Judge Hertzog,
the Free State jurist, and Judge J.Esser,
the Transvaal jurist, as to the ad-
visability of the presence of the officers
of the South African Republic. Dis-
cussion waxed warm; there seemed to
be no chance of agreement between
the two lawyers. Oom Piet became
irritated and restive during this wordy
debate; once or twice he beat the earth
with an impatient, nervous fist, and
then jumped suddenly into the trench
and shouted in a thundering voice:
"I open the court-martial!"
The jurists looked at each other
in dumfoundered amazement, and then,
making the best of a bad bargain, sat
down quietly. They had come simul-
taneously to the wise conclusion that
they had best let matters rest as they
Piet Cronje did not believe in
bandying words. He was accustomed
to act as seemed best to him, without
let or hindrance. Contradiction made
him extremely angry, and only helped
to strengthen his own convictions.
General De la Rey was the only one
who was not afraid of him, and often
succeeded, but never without a stormy
interview, in bringing him round to his
way of thinking.
When I arrived at Magersfontein as
war-correspondent, General De la Rey
was the first person I met He shook
my hand most cordially, and said, in a
THE LATE COLONEL UE VILLEBOIS-MAEEUIL.
THE LATE COLONEL COMTE DE VILLEBOIS -MARETJIL, an heroic and noble
nature. When the British before Kimberley made a breach in the trenches, and shell
after shell exploded around him, Villebois remained quietly at his post, though all near
him fled and five Transvaalers were severely wounded. No foreign officer who fought
on the side of the Boers was so deeply mourned as Villebois. He fell at Boshof on
the 5th of April 1900.
GENERAL P. A. CRONJE
fellow, where have
you been all this
by Oom Piet was
of a very different
kind. He asked
me into his tent,
an iron bedstead,
a box and a table
on which stood a
desk for the sec-
retary. I noticed
neat every thing-
was in the tent.
His wife w;is
making coffee and
offered me a cup.
Oom Piet, sitting
on the edge of
"How are the
people in Pre-
"All right, general."
"Aren't they frightened?"
"Not a bit, general. What should
they be frightened of?"
"When the war broke out , they
asked me what they were to do, and I
told them to stay quietly at Pretoria.
Our burghers will put this business right."
The general laughed good-naturedlv
at the fears of those one or two timid
foreigners in the capital; he was so sure
that he would master the "Rooineks."
This conviction found full expression
in his answer to the fallen French
Colonel, Count de Villebois-Mareuil,
and the Austrian Count Sternberg,
who suggested that the British, instead
of risking a second frontal attack on
the strong position of Magersfontein,
might, by making a turning move-
ment, attack from the east. Without
moving a muscle he said:
THE RESTORED GUN LOXG TOM. During the night of 8 December 1899.
one of the guns, Long Tom, which bombarded Ladysmith, was rendered useless by
the British. A. charge of dynamite placed in the muzzle did great damage.
But the destruction of the gun was by no means complete, and it was easily
repaired. Long Tom was ready for work again in a very short time, and was dis-
patched by rail to Ottoskop, near Kimberley. The gun created no little dismay among
the inhabitants of the latter city.
"Very well, then we shall catch
them in the plain and shoot down every
Englishman of them."
All the European officers could do
was to shrug their shoulders: argument
was out of the question. The British
prepared to make this circuit, and Oom
Piet was quite convinced that he could
repulse them. He sent off commando
after commando; but it was of no use:
the enemy outnumbered them. In vain
was his short and terse command :
"Hurry; shoot clown the British to
the last man!"
It could not be done. The English
cavalry galloped down between the
two hills, drove off the garrison
and took up a strong position. This
secured the safety of French's brigade,
which had commenced to deploy on
the 11th of February 1900.
During the evening, the Boer of-
HEROES OF THE BOER WAR.
Beers held a council of war at Magers-
t < mt fin : the position was lost, the main
camp surrounded, and Cronje cast down,
1 1< >t knowing what to do. He was ready
for a ret real with women, children,
waggons and so forth; but he had no
Count Sternberg, who was present
with Colonel de Villebois, trembling
with indignation at the bare suggestion
of such a move, called out:
"Fly? I, an Austrian officer, fly?
Villebois took the matter more
quietly. He saw that nothing remained
but a retreat, and suggested the
route to Boshof, to the north-east of
Cronje said nothing. Captain Danie
Theron, who had no patience with inde-
cision and who felt that something must
be done without delay, offered to break
through the British lines with a thou-
sand volunteers and thus secure the
retreat of the Boer force.
"You may put down my name at
the head of the list," he said, with
After a long consultation, the re-
treat was decided upon. In the stillness
of the night, on the 15th of February
1900, the waggons were loaded up: as
the whole convoy was going, no one
wished to leave anything behind. The
English got no wind of the move, and,
at daybreak, the British guns sent forth
their lightning from all sides, and shells
fell thick upon the place where, only
the day before, the laager had been.
Draper, of the Transvaal Intelligence
Department, who had remained behind
with the "Red Cross" and who objected
to having his breakfast spoilt by this
bombardment, improvised a white flag
and went to the spot where , through
his field-glasses, he had seen some
British officers standing. He informed
them, in his politest manner, that the
Boer army, much to its regret, had left
without having the opportunity of
returning the salute; but it sent its
"Where the devil is Cronje then?"
asked the officers, in dumfoundered
"Don't know," drawled Draper, and
asked to have the bombardment stopped.
This was done. Meanwhile, orderly-
officers dashed off at a hand-gallop to
headquarters at Jacobsclaal, to report that
Cronje had made off. The British patrols
did not catch sight of him until about
From that moment, the British
artillery-fire followed him, thundering,
roaring, shaking earth and sky. His
long train hindered mobility, and, fired
with great precision, the shells burst
over the waggons, whilst the tired
beasts, encouraged by yells and cracking
whips, did their utmost. The British
did not venture to attack; the Boer
artillery, under the command of two such
undaunted German officers as von Dewitz
and von Heister, held the cavalry of
the enemy in check.
It needed no wizard to tell that,
hampered as Cronje was by his slow
and heavy train, the British would over-
take him and not only cut him off,
but take him between two fires; there-
fore the commandants advised the
general to leave the waggons behind,
to ride forward with the burghers and
take up strong positions. Cronje" curtly
refused. Firmly and sturdily he sat
his horse , a picture of wrong- headed
AtBrandsvlei, Chief Com mandantFer-
reira, of the Free State, sent a messenger
to advise him to cross the drift
and join him. Cronje refused, and
declared that he would press on to
Paardenberg. De Wet did not approve
of this. He was afraid that the British
would occupy the hill and cut up the
laager in the plain. Cronje declared
that he knew r what he was about, and
that the position was impregnable.
He took up his position at the foot
HKKOKS OF THK BOER WAR.
of Paardenberg. What De Wet had
foreseen happened. The enemy forced
the Boers to evacuate the surrounding
heights and plantedtheirgunsthere. They
attempted to storm the laager two days
later, on the 18th of February 1900, and
met with frightful losses. Then com-
menced an uninterrupted bombardment,
(ieneral De Wet and the war-commission
at Bloemfontein pressed Cronje by
heliograph to break with his burghers
through the British lines, leaving
women, children and waggons behind.
The British would hurt neither women
nor children. Oom Piet heliographed
buck that there was no need for
anxiety, his trenches were good. All
he needed was medical help. Every
morning, De Wet asked for news by
heliograph and always got the same
answer , that all was well and that
the enemy would not get the better
of Cronje's burghers.
But the burghers were driven across
the river, first from one position and
then from another, and their situation
became daily more serious. The roar
and thunder of the British guns was
heard in De Wet's laager day and
night, and day and night saw confla-
grations in Cronje's laager. A few
burghers succeeded in escaping singly
and brought back the most harrowing
descriptions of the condition of their
unfortunate comrades; but no w r ord of
complaint came from the general. He
returned curt answers to the sympathetic
enquiries of his brother-in-arms, De
Suddenly the heliograph from
Cronje's laager ceased to send its
message. De Wet became uneasy,
and, two days later, when an heroic
attempt to rescue the unfortunate
burghers had miscarried, Captain Danie
Theron volunteered for the dangerous
post of fighting his way through to
Cronje, to see how matters stood. He
found Oom Piet alone, sullen as ever
and as obstinately determined to hold
ENGLISH PRISONERS OF WAR FROM PAARDENBERG. When Cronje's laager was
surrounded at Paardenberg, many heroic attempts were made by the Boers from outside
to rescue their comrades. The greatly superior forces of Lord Roberts' army rendered
these attempts fruitless. Still the Boers took several prisoners. Those represented above
were surprised at dinner. The photograph was taken on their arrival at Pretoria
(25 February 1900).
2 — ■*
a. n> s
ii " o
BEEOES OF THE BOEE WAR.
on and "give the enemy a thorough
lesson once and for all," he said. When
tlif general heard of the futile attempt
at rescue, he smiled grimly as much
as to say, "No matter, I'm safe where
I am." Danie Theron saw that
those under Cronje did not share his
optimism, but had again and again
tried to persuade the general to leave
all behind and cut his way through
the lines. At last, Cronje had to
recognize that his obstinacy was losing
him the great influence he once held
over those under his command, for
the burghers, under the protection of
who would have defended his position
with such unshaken tenacity. His short,
square tigure, his curt manner of
command, so much in contrast with
his naturally friendly manner, all showed
the unconquerable stubbornness of the
It was on the morning of the Battle
of Magersfontein, on the 11th of
December 1899, when General Wau-
chope, with a force of a few hundred
men, having skirted the Boer position,
noticed a number of loose horses
A TRANSVAAL ARTILLEKY-PAKK.
the white flag, went over to the enemy
by tens and twelves. At last he agreed
to throw a wooden bridge across the
Modder River and join De Wet. The
enemy got wind of the plan and set
the bridge on tire with lyddite shells.
The anniversary of Majuba Day, 27 Fe-
bruary 1881, beheld the surrender of
Cronje, the most disastrous event of
Grim, stern and sullen, brave Oom
Piet went into captivity. His hopes
of giving the British a lesson once and
for all were at an end. Had it depended
on him, he would have starved to death
rather than agree to hoist the white
flag. There is no other Boer general
galloping over the plain, and began to
shoot them down. Cronje' and his staff
of six officers happened to be near.
Oom Piet's sharp eyes noticed the grey
shadows moving to and fro unsteadily.
He watched a moment, and then called
u There are the Rooineks; shoot,
Joined by two burghers from the
Kroonstad Commando, the seven men
began to fire at the flitting shadows
in the grey distance.
The first sunbeams pierced the
misty clouds with their golden arrows,
and the soft grey veil was lifted from
the fresh and smiling landscape. The
GENERAL P. A. CRONJE
veldt wore its most beauteous dress of
creamy white and softest green; dia-
monds glimmered in its folds, lending
it brilliancy and added beauty. And then,
when the last flaky clouds , delicate
as cobwebs, had been put to flight by
the fiery advance of the sun , there
lay between the boulders many a brave
soldier, with clenched hands and arms
upraised to heaven, as though, in his last
moment, he had called down God's
curse upon his destroyer. They lay
where they had fallen , those poor
Tommies, their glazed eyes still open
and gazing upwards, as though the soul,
winging itself for flight, looked to the
spirit of morning for guidance into
Eternity. Others hid their faces in
Mother Earth's bosom, as though the
brilliant light affrighted them. And
piteous were the cries of the wounded for
water, to which their comrades, in their
terror and confusion, lent a deaf ear.
"Shoot, boys, shoot!" had been
Cronje's cry, and his own Mauser had
taken its full share in the work.
"I can't go on," sighed a Kroonstad
burgher, a mere boy, whose first battle
it was, and who was nearly driven cr;i/.\
by the unceasing crack of the rifles.
He saw the wounded soldiers totter
and fall, and others run about in
confusion, seeking a way of es<;ipu
which they were never to find. The
Boer fire gave them no chance. Nine
men against two hundred! Cronje saw
that the enemy was much stronger, but
he dared not lose time by sending for
reinforcements. The Rooineks had to
be beaten , and Oom Piet beat them.
Some time afterwards , I met the
young Kroonstad burgher again. When
he spoke of that morning, he put his
hands to his head, shuddered and saidr
"I dare not think of it; it drives me
mad; never again will I go on commando:
I am now with the Red Cross.''
Cronje, the captive of St. Helena,
may not have shown himself possessed
of the great powers of strategy with
which he was credited before the war.
But he has every right to his title of
honour as '"Brave Oom Piet".
GLIMPSES OF BOER CAJIP LIKE- PREPARING DINNER. This is a very important
moment in camp life. The Kaffir is set to chop wood, called iron- wood on account
of its hardness. As soon as the potatoes are peeled and put on to. boil, preparations
are made to stew or roast the meat. An ingenious roasting-jack is contrived by tying two
pieces of this same iron wood together. The Boer has to look sharp about it, though:
there is not much time for meals when war is abroad.
FORMERLY COMMANDANT GENERAL OF THE TRANSVAAL FORCES, AND
MEMBER OF THE FIRST VOLKSRAAD FOR THE VRIJHEJX) DISTRICT.
COMMANDANT GENERAL LOUIS BOTHA.
SHORTLY before the outbreak of the
^ war, when the Transvaal Volksraad
was appointing different leaders to fill
the rank of general, no member of
our legislature thought of giving a vote
to Louis Botha. Louis was too young
and had had no opportunity of displaying
his tactical qualities. He had risen
no higher than assistant field cornet.
Lucas Meijer, the senior member for
Vrijheid, for which district Botha sat
as junior member in the First Volks-
raad, was appointed a general. He had
been wounded in the neck in the war
of 1880-1881 and had given proofs
of great bravery in the Zulu War.
The appointment therefore was only
natural, and that Louis Botha was
passed over is quite as intelligible.
Like so many others , like De Wet,
Kritzinger, Danie Theron, Beijers, Malan,
he first displayed his great capacity
during the course of the war.
He was one of the first to take the
field. As Lucas Meijer's subordinate,
he fought freely at Dundee, but without
distinguishing himself. Then Lucas Meijer
fell ill, owing to the exhausting marches
and fights that fellowed on the evacuation
of Dundee (22-26 October 1899). The
doctors prescribed absolute rest. Meijer
returned to Pretoria, and Louis Botha
assumed the temporary command. The
Utrecht and Vrijheid Commandoes held
Ladysmith locked in on the south. It
was over these and the Wakkerstroom
Commando that the young general held
command, and the task fell to him of
defending the Tugela positions against
Sir Redvers Buller's advancing army.
Here Louis Botha established his
name for good and all as an able
tactician. Personally he showed the
burghers where to dig the trenches.
He taught them how to conceal those
trenches from the eyes of the enemy
by means of branches and foliage. He
encouraged the burghers in their heavy
work upon the hard rocky ground,
work made still more unpleasant by
HEROES OF THE BOER WAR.
the scarcity of implements, enabling
the Boers to work only by turns. But
Louis Botha's friendly words, his
encouraging talk and infinite patience
kept up the burghers' spirits. Most
of them had not even known him by
sight before that time; but he enlisted
the sympathy of the Transvaalers with
astonishing swiftness. His kindly glance.
THE LATE GENERAL LUCAS MEYER, President of the First
Volksraad of the South African Republic. The hero of Dundee and
Glencoe (20 October 1899), the brave warrior who was wounded in
the neck in the war of 1880-81, President of the former "New
Republic," known, siDce 188*, as the Vryheid District, and leader of
the Boers who so successfully defeated the Zulus under Silepu in
1884. He died suddenly, on the 8th of August 1902, soon after his
arrival in Europe.
the patience with which he listened to
one and all in a moment won every
heart. He knew how to lead his men
as very few officers did.
On the 6th of December 1899, Ge-
neral Joubert was taken to the hospital
at Volksrust to recover from the dis-
orders brought on by the famous
march to Estcourt (22 November 1899).
Louis Botha was appointed responsible
commander of the Tugela positions. Jt
was a great distinction for this young man
of thirty-five. Some of his subordinates
looked upon him with a jealous eye;
but Louis disarmed envy by his kind-
ness, and, when the Battle of Colenso
had been fought, on the 15th of
December 1899, the malcontents
dared to attack the young general only
in whispers. Louis Botha had
chosen his positions so ex-
cellently that at no single point
did the garrison need strength-
ening. During the battle,
he was constantly at the most
important points. He gave
the orders to fire and fixed
the moment for the abandoned
British guns to be brought in:
he commanded the Boer artillery
to be silent, so that the Eng-
lish thought that the bridge
across the Tugela was not
covered by Boer guns and
allowed their two batteries to
advance too far. In a word, the
whole credit of this battle and
all the following battles on
the Tugela is due to him.
But Louis Botha remained
the same modest, patient man
Meanwhile, General Joubert
died, on the 27th of March
1900, and, at his express desire.
Louis Botha was made Acting
Commandant General. It is
easily understood that, by that
time, there was none to cavil
at this appointment. Every-
one had built his faith upon the young
general whom, six months earlier, the
members of the Volksraad had not thought
worthy of a command. But it was an
unfavourable time at which Louis Botha
took up the command -in -chief The
Boers were demoralized. They no longer
thought of making a stand against
Lord Roberts' gigantic army. The
positions had been spendidly prepared;
e; o o ■
COMMANDANT GENERAL LOUIS BOTHA.
THE HAIL WAY BRIDGE AT WASCHBANK (NATAL), BLOWN UP WITH DYNAMITE
BY THE BOERS.
but the burghers fled before there was
any real danger. And the Boer army
became smaller at each mile that it
retreated. Tempted by Lord Roberts'
specious promises in his proclamations of
the 1st and 31st of May 1900, the
combatants laid down their arms in
thousands. Louis Botha's kindness and
patience were of no avail. Still he did
not lose courage. He called what had
occurred a purging of the ranks. But
he was determined to make his power
felt behind the Boer lines. He was
determined to show that not even a
British army can protect a burgher
who has betrayed his country. Patrols
of volunteers crossed and recrossed the
Transvaal by his command, captured
the false patriots who had acted as
guides or shown other services to the
ANOTHKH VIEW OF THE ABOVE.
HEKOES OK THE BOEB WAlt.
enemy, and brought them into the Boer quietly left
linos, where they
received their due
punishment. Due is
hardly the right
word here: if Presi-
dentSteijn and Louis
Botha had been less
gentle towards trai-
tors and insisted
that they should
be sentenced to
death instead of
never have increased
to that alarming
But Louis Botha
is too gentle by
nature: a quality
which he shares
with all the Bothas.
True , he brooks
no breach of law
or order; but he
is not strong enough
to exact the utmost penalties of the law. to preserve
Scarce had the Transvaal Government back to his
THE LATE GENERAL CHRISTIAN BUT
He died November 19U2.
Pretoria, on the approach
of the English,
when the in-
habitants began to
plunder a great
full of provisions.
This looting was
reported to General
Botha, as was the
state of complete
anarchy that pre-
vailed in the capital.
Without a moment's
delay, he rode to
a committee which
was made respon-
sible for peace and
order and the good
conduct of affairs,
charged a number
of mounted bur-
ghers with police
duties, issued a
upon the inhabitants
and then hastened
THE TUGELA RAILWAY BRIDGE AT COLENSO, DESTROYED 16 November 1899.
COMMANDANT GENEEAL LOUIS BOTHA.
This is a signal instance
of Botha's swift and able
methods. The most striking
proof was given in Sep-
tember 1900, when, in the
midst of the war, he found
time and opportunity tho-
roughly to reform the regu-
lations of the South African
Republic regarding the
commandoes. Till that time,
the officers of the Boer army
had been elected by the
burghers. After the inaugu-
ration of the new rules, on
the 6thof October 1900, these
appointments lay with the
Commandant General: a very
thorough change, rendered
necessary by the fact that
the personal element played
far too great a part in the
elections and often thrust
the claims of military capacity
into the background.
It is a remarkable thing
that, although Louis Botha
never acted with great
severity, everyone attached
great importance to his good
or bad opinion. Pretoria
had long been occupied, and
Louis de Souza, the former
Secetary of the War Depart-
ment, of which the Com-
mandant General was the
head, knew that Louis Botha
was "banjo, angry with him."
One day, when a friend got
per mission to leave the ca-
pital in order to join the
general, Souza asked him
kindly to put in a good word
for him with the young Com-
mander-in-Chief. And this
is one instance out of many.
Botha exercises an immediat
indescribable charm and a sympathetic
influence upon all who come into contact
with him. The high forehead, fche
calm, biue-grey eves, the manly face,
the kind, attractive smile playing about
his mouth, the well-built, muscular form,
the pleasan! manners all combine to
HEROES OF THE BOER WAR.
stamp him as a man of refinement and
of clear common-sense. Whence did this
man derive his obvious culture? That
is the secret of so many Boer characters.
He was born at Vrede, in the Orange
Free State, a village founded by his
father. In his youth, he watched the
sheep on the veldt. He has taught
himself all he knows. He speaks Dutch
and English fluently, and writes both
held in common with the late General
Joubert. They were astonished to find
that he often had reserves in hand on
which they had not reckoned : a simple
secret, the explanation of which lay in his
excellent distribution of the commandoes
along the fighting line. They looked
up to him with ever increasing respect,
because he rejected all Lord Roberts'
brilliant offers and remained true to the
BOER ARTILLERY IN ACTION AT COLEXSO: 15 December 1899. On this wide
jjlain was fought the bloody battle which ended in one of the greatest defeats experienced
by the English in the war. Through the plain winds the Tugela, to whose south bank
the English brought their guns. Two batteries, however, advanced too quickly and too
far. The lioers took advantage of this mistake to open fire from their trenches; and
the men working the guns and their escort fell. Seven times the English made heroic
efforts to save the guns; but the teams were shot down and the men trying to serve them
were each time driven back with heavy loss. Eleven guns with all their ammunition fell
into the hands of the Boers.
languages fairly well. He is acquainted
with all the forms of European society,
and is a gentleman in every sense of
the word. He is a self-made man
without the latter's brag and arrogance.
He is the aristocrat of the healthy mind
in the healthy body.
His burghers valued him for his
prudence, which led them into no un-
necessary danger, a prudence which he
cause of independence, when so many
others had succumbed to temptation.
They were always drawing new strength
from his spirit, which remained un-
daunted in the face of all reverses, from
his kindliness, which remained imperturb-
able, despite the endless privations
which he cheerfully shared with the
least of the burghers. The Boers, who
themselves are models of what patient
HEROES OF THE BOER WAR.
men should be, respected his patience,
and told exaggerated stories of his
licans have had
no more capable
tli is young
general. De la
Key may be
\\ et more art-
ful; but not one
of them was
able to lay such
as Louis Botha.
Once he had
worked out a
plan, it was
all its details. These fitted together
like the links of a chain. That is why
VIADUCT IN THE BIGGARSBERG (Natal), WRECKED WITH
DYNAMITE BY THE BOERS.
Botha was the right man in the right
place as Commander-in-Chief. He gave
all the com-
and most dis-
tant, his orders,
and all worked
his plans, with
of De la Key,
who acted quite
edly the man
for war on the
large scale. He
has, it is true,
in the guerrilla,
but his force
did not lie
there so much
as in the grande
qualities lifted the Commandant General
Botha above his predecessor. He did
THE RAILWAY BRIDGE OVER THE SUNDAY RIVER (NATAL), REPAIRED BY THK
TRANSVAALERS. The English repair bridges in the same manner, or else build a kind of
bridge in the bed of the river. These are, of course, only make-shifts, and (£uite unable to
resist the rapids, especially after the tropical rains, when the force of the current becomes
- I'- >
S= B ^
V » «
b a Z
<o 3 pd
CD C ^
HEROES OF THE BOEB WAR.
not lose courage so
quickly as Joubert,
and he had a greater
talent for organi-
zation and adminis-
It is a remarkable
thing that the whole
of the Old Guard of
1880-1881 had fallen
out of the fight, and
that the war was
being continued by
the younger African
Joubert was dead,
General Kock killed,
Piet Cronje a prisoner,
Paul Kruger abroad,
and Louis Botha, De
Wet, De la Rey,
Beijers, Jan Smuts,
GENERAL C. L. BEIJERS of the Transvaal
1 Lertzog, Ben Viljoen,
Kritzinger and others
all worthily replaced
In the First Volks-
raad, Louis Botha
was a calm speaker,
who thought every
subject out before
speaking, was never
carried away by
kept within the limits
of parliamentary de-
bate. He had been
a member of the
body since 1896 and
had, from the begin-
himself by his clear-
ness of judgment
Secretary to Acting
Military Secretary to
GENERAL GENERAL VISCOUNT
LOUIS KITCHENER, G. C B.
SIR IAN HAMILTON,
K. C. B., Chief of Staff
THE CONFERENCE BETWEEN LORD KITCHENER AND COMMANDANT GENERAL
LOUIS BOTHA, AT MIDDELBURG : 28 February l'JOO.
COMMANDANT GENERAL LOUIS BOTE \.
and especially by his innate good-
He was a Progressive in politics,
and was formerly an ardent defender
of Schalk Burger's policy, as set forth
in the well-known Industrial Report. In
1898, during the famous debate on the
Dynamite Concession, he was in his
best form, and never, during my five
years' career as a Transvaal parliament-
ary reporter, have ] heard such brilliant
speeches as those delivered by Louis
Botha in support of the continuance
of the concession.
He was no partisan opponent of
President Kruger's methods of govern-
ment. He was prepared to
support Oom Paul in every
good proposal, but also to
fight with all his might
against any measure of
which he disapproved.
However keen and des-
tructive his criticism, he
never forgot to observe
the forms of debate.
Often, during the adjourn-
ment, he would continue
his discussion with the
President, who usually
grew very excited, while
Botha remained ever
calm and polite. He
is affability personified,
listens to everybody, and is
not strong enough roundly
to refuse a request. In
every- day life he is an ex-
ceedingly agreeable per-
son, feels at home wher-
ever he may be, and is
able to talk on almost any
subject. Red Cross doctors
and volunteers with the Boers, when
they learnt to know Louis Botha, grew
enthusiastic on the subject of his
A curious fact, which should be
mentioned here, is that Louis Botha,
who lived in Natal as a youth, was
once a member of the Natal Volunteers.
Together with Lucas Meijer, he assisted
Cetewayo's son, Dinizulu, the Zulu chief,
to bring his fellow chief, Sibepu, into sub-
jection and thus restore order in Zululand.
In return for this aid, the Boers in 1884,
as we know, received a large tract of
ground, the present District of Vrijheid,
as it has been called since li
COMMANDANT GENERAL LOUIS BOTHA. lie was only 35
years of age when apponted to Lis high position, owing to his rare abi-
lity. He won world-wide renown iu the battles in Natal: the Tugela,
Sp'ion Kop aud Vaalkrans. He is a great strategist. The grey which
he is riding was a gift from the inhabitants of Pretoria, and was
presented to him after the Battle of Coleuso (15 December L899).
CHRISTIAN DE WET,
FORMERLY CHIEF COMMANDANT GENERAL OP THE FRKE STATE FORCES
AND MEMBER OF THE VOLKSRAAD FOR BOVEN-MODDERRIVER.
CHIEF COMMANDANT GENERAL CHRISTIAN DE WET
THE first time I met the now famous
general was at Jacobsdaal. General
De la Rey introduced me. Oom Chris-
jan gave me his hand, pressed mine
hard, but said little. Perhaps I should
look upon him with other eyes now:
but I remember very well that, at that
time, he did not make a great impression
upon me. Beside De la Rey, with the
thinker's head and the dark, glittering
eyes, De Wet seemed tame and spirit-
less. Only the short, broad figure, the
large swelling breast denoted great
bodily strength and muscular force, as
in a bull.
That evening, the two generals started,
with a patrol of 150 men, for the rear
of the English position at Two Rivers,
intending to blow up the railway line.
The expedition failed, because the man
whose duty it was to work the dyna-
mite was unable to discharge the ex-
plosive. De la Rey was excited at the
failure; but still more furious was Oom
Chrisjan. Throughout the day, I had been
learning to know him as a man of very
few words; but now, in his disappoint-
ment, he growled and grumbled, with
his loud voice, and roughly and bluntly
rated the culprit. During those repeated
outburts of temper, his otherwise dull
eyes flashed fire.
Later, I met General De Wet, at
different times, at Magersfontein ; but
he was always still and introspective,
almost shy. Piet Cronje and De la
Rey were generals who had already
distinguished themselves, one in the War
of 1880-1881, the other in the present
war. De Wet had not yet had an oppor-
tunity of showing his masterly talents.
Probably he did not even feel the power
that lay concealed within him. In any
case, the knowledge that the two Trans-
vaal generals were his superiors in
experience evidently oppressed him. He
felt drawn towards General De la Rey,
who was annoyed at General Cronje's
inactivity. But, at the same time, lie
was a little afraid of Oom Piet, who
[EKOES OF THE lioKIt WAR.
always carried his plans through,
stubbornly, rudely, and suffered no one
by his side. De la Rev was not afraid
to tackle Oom Piet. He knew him in
the Transvaal. But to De Wet Cronje
was the much honoured hero of Pot-
chefstroom and the Jameson Raid. He
looked up to him with the adoration
of a patriot for the great men of his
The Boers did not think much, at
that time, of Oom Chrisjan. President
Steijn had sent for him from Natal,
where he had the rank of commandant
with the commandoes, and promoted
him to general. The Free Staters
CHIEF COMMANDANT GENERAL CRISTIAN DE WET
failed to see in what way De Wet
had deserved this distinction. They
admitted that he was brave, but there
were commandants who had shown
themselves in no way inferior to him
in this respect. And so, in December
1899, when an election took place for
a Free Stater to command in chief on
the Western border, the Burghers elected
Ignaas Ferreira, the Commandant of
Ladybrand, to the post. General De
Wet received one vote less than his
Oom Chrisjan first made his mark
at Blauwbank, on the 15th of February
1900. News had come that the English
were marching from the South in the
direction of Koffijfontein. Cronje thought
that they meant to enter the Free State
by Koffijfontein, and sent De Wet, with
his own brother, Commandant Andries
Cronje, to Blauwbankto repel theinvasion.
Here De Wet captured the enemy's huge
convoy, and, as often happens when an
officer takes suddenly a fine prize,
established his reputation. Everyone
talked of De Wet and even, for a mo-
ment, forgot the defeat of Cronje, who
had, on the same day, 15 February 1900,
evacuated the Magersfontein position,
and the news that had come to band
of the relief of Kimberley.
Oom Chrisjan showed his burghers
at Blauwbank that he was no easy man
to deal with. He drove them back to
their trenches with his whip when they
attempted to fly, and they became so
afraid of their angry general that
they no longer dared retire.
Three days later, he arrived with
his commandoes at Paardenberg, where
Cronje was hemmed in by the English.
His fame preceded him:
"De Wet is coming!"
And this shows the influence
of a name. It was as though the
burghers had suddenly been imbued
with fresh spirit. They had lost
courage latterly owing to all their
reverses: but De Wet would put eveiy-
thing right again. On that 18th of
February, all the commandoes fought
bravely; but Cronje again was stubborn.
He refused to leave the women and
children and his baggage behind and
to cut his way through the British
lines. De Wet, who was now in command,
was constantly contriving new plans to
release Cronje. But the numerical
superiority of the enemy was too over-
whelming. Still he did not lose courage.
I distinctly remember the 23rd of
February 1900. De Wet had planned
a general assault. It was a daring
scheme. All the mounted commandoes
were simultaneously to storm the British
positions. Oom Chrisjan stood with his
staff on a kopje, whence he could
command the whole field. He saw the
burghers gallop bravely to within rifle-
shot of the positions. Then came the
rattle of rifle-fire. The men advanced,
but were compelled to fall back. They
did not see the enemy, did not know
where nor in which direction to fire.
The brave Winburghers were swallowed
up in the enemy's wedge-shaped position.
The Lee-Metfords cracked from three
sides. The Winburghers had to surren-
der. There was no other escape from
death. We on the kopje saw this. It
was a tragic spectacle. De Wet said
not a word. He only compressed his
lips tightly together, and his features
assumed that biting aspect which I
have found again in- his later portraits.
It was a resolute man that stood that
morning on the kopje. But tears gleamed
in his eyes.
In the early morning of the 27th
of February, I learnt from some Kaffirs
that Cronje' had surrendered. They
came from his laager, where the English
had let them go free. I refused to
believe the fatal news, saddled my horse,
and rode over to De Wet. I found the
general silent, and introspective as usual,
and asked him if he had received any
confirmation of the report. He too
had heard it, but did not believe it.
COMMANDANT J. H. OLIVIER.
COMMANDANT OLIVIER, the hero of Stormberg; a great tactician. He and the
Transvaal Commandant. Lemmer, succeeded, notwithstanding the occupation of Bloem-
fnntein, in extricating the whole Boer force in the North of Cape Colony (21 March 1900),
without losing a gun, waggon or horse.
CHIEF COMMANDANT GENERAL CHRISTIAN DE WET.
And lie told me this with something
grim and resolute in voice, look and
bearing, as though he meant to say,
"Come what may, it will make no
difference to my resistance".
Poplar Grove (7 March 1900) and
Driefontein (10 March 1900) were not
successes for De Wet. They showed
that his strength did not lie in the grande
At Poplar Grove he was warned
in time by his scouts of the encircling
movement of the enemy. He did not
strengthen his flanks. True, it would
not have availed him against the superior
forces; but to neglect the precaution
was a mistake.
Two days later, he defended the
approach to Bloemfontein with 600 men.
What could he do, however, against
Lord Roberts' army? But it was a
point of honour with him not to give
up the capital without striking a blow
in its defence. The other officers had
wished to do so, but not he. He was
too grimly determined to contest every
inch of territory against the enemy.
And, in the evening, when he left
Bloemfontein, knowing that, the next
morning, the English would make their
unimpeded entry, he assured his friends
that he would return one day when
the Free State was free again. This
was no bluster, but a sacred promise,
uttered in deadly earnest. The words,
so calmly spoken, gave fresh courage
to his officers. De Wet's determination
From that day his epoch of fame
begins. The victories of Sanna's Post
(1 April 1900) and Reddersburg (5 April
1900) bade the fighting Boers be of
good cheer. De Wet hovered around
Bloemfontein. He cut off the Water
Works and held them in his possession
until Lord Roberts began to march to
Pretoria (3 May 1900). He spoilt the
British joy at the occupation of Johannes-
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ARMSTRONG GUN CAPTURED AT STORMBERG. Rushing General Gatacre's battery, the
Boers succeeded in in driving off the English artillery, which wire unable to hold out against
their rifles, though they defended their batteries with the greatest courage. Three pieces fell
into tho hands of the heroes of Stormberg (10 December 1899).
iii:i;o]> <•!•• Tin; r.or.i; war.
burg by his victory over the 13th
Battalion of Imperial Yeomanry at
Lindley (31 May 1900). He embittered
the delight at the surrender of Pretoria
on the 5th of June by capturing a
large train of supplies at Honingspruit
on the 6th and surprising the Derby-
shires on the 7th.
De Wet had developed into the
man he was thenceforward to show
himself, the general whose talents
compelled respect from the very enemy.
In the days of adversity, he had learnt
what the Boer Army lacked: discipline.
And, with all his strength of will and
all his strictness, he set himself to rule
his burghers. He lashed the cowards
mercilessly. He seldom carried a rifle,
but he was never seen without his
sjambok. He maintained an iron dis-
cipline and was inexorable if his curt
orders were not swiftly carried out. He
suffered no neglect of duty from common
burghers or officers. His brother Piet,
who had spent the time near Lindley
doing nothing, while Chrisjan himself
had acted with such great success at
Roodewal Siding, was deprived of his
rank, because he had allowed a convoy
of 50 waggons, with a feeble escort, to
enter Lindley unimpeded. In this way,
Oom Chrisjan showed himself to be
severe, but just, refusing to overlook
any offence, even on the part of his
own family. No offenders escaped him.
The general, with his iron frame,
which knew no fatigue, often inspected
his pickets at night in person. His
burghers were more afraid of being
surprised by their general than b}^ the
enemy. And, notwithstanding his harsh-
ness, all his men remained with him.
Only a very few had run away to other
commandoes or surrendered. The others
were faithful to him to the death. They
admired him for his uprightness, his
fairness, his strict justice, his courage,
his resolution, his calmness in the
presence of danger. His mighty will
swayed them all.
De Wet could lead his men into
any fight. They had unlimited confid-
ence in his generalship. They believed
in him fanatically. They followed him
as the Turks followed the green
flag of Mohammed. He saved them
repeatedly when escape seemed hopeless
and when all the other officers were
thinking of surrender. At such moments,
I have no doubt that De Wet's mouth
again assumed that resolute fold. He
sat grimly for a while, huddled into
himself, and then his plan was ripe.
It was always a very simple, in no way
complicated, plan: the egg of Columbus,
in fact. And its very simplicity ensured
its unfailing success.
As often as I read, in Europe, that
De Wet had been hopelessly surrounded
and had still succeeded in escaping, I
used to think of his own words:
"A Boer first gets dangerous when
you succeed in surrounding him.''
He uttered these words on the Modder
River, at the time of the investment of
Cronje, after he had barely escaped being
surrounded. This was the first time that
he extricated himself from a British
trap. How often he succeeded since! The
Boers called him the "jackal," referring
to the craftiness with which he made
his way through any outlet. And yet
it was determination rather than craft-
iness. De Wet would not surrender.
He has said so himself:
"As long as it is possible — and it
is always possible — for me to get
through, escape and fight again, I
shall do so. When necessary, I shall
run away, and, if the others will not
follow me, I shall run away alone. But
surrender and lose our liberty: never!"
He prefered to take any dangerous
work on himself personally, if he feared
that another might fall back or waver
at the crucial moment. He, with his
nerves of steel, knew neither fear nor
And he always escaped the threat-
ening danger. History tells of the
HEEOES OF THE BOER WAR.
most wonderful deliveries. The traitor
who brought a patrol to take De
Wet prisoner when staying at a
certain place found the bird flown when
he returned. When the greater part
of his followers were captured, De Wet
escaped, as at Bothaville, on the 5th
of November 1900. When his pursuers
thought that they had him at last, he
was far away. They thought to find
him in a house: it so happened that he
was sleeping outside. This happened
many times. Innumerable attempts were
made to catch him, and all failed,
whereas his plans to escape invariably
succeeded. His men saw in this a
higher Hand Which spared him. He
had become to them the apostle of
their liberty, and he wielded an une-
qualled power over them, which he
knew how to employ with rare tal-
ent in the service of his country. At
one time, he was with this commando;
at another, with that. Accompanied
only by a few trusted followers, he
rode through the land. To-day he was
here; to-morrow there. He needed little
rest. He took it when he could. And
it was then, perhaps, that he was most
dangerous to his enemies, who, at
such times, seemed to perceive his pres-
ence at three or four places at once.
In those rare days of inaction, he
thought out new plans and suddenly
broke from his rest and darted through
the country, striking his blows with
inconceivable swiftness and sureness.
When necessary, in a few days he
would gather a great force round him,
which as suddenly dispersed. Slowness
did not exist for him. He felt that
the enervating influence which he exer-
cised over the enemy lay in the rapid-
ity of his operations and movements,
and he had carried discipline to so high
a pitch that his men executed all his
commands immediately and swiftly. He
had taught the slow-moving Boer, whose
"steady on, man" lay always on his
lips, to be quick and resolute in all
De Wet, the man who is square of
build and square in character, cannot
endure half-patriots. He preferred to let
them go from his commandoes, rather
than remain. He himself sacrificed all
for liberty. He expected his followers
to be prepared to do as much. The
PART OP THE DESTROYED BRIDGE OVER THE VET RIVER (ORANGE FREE
STATE). On the retreat from Kroonstad, the Boers blew up the bridge almost in the faces
of the astounded British. The work of destruction was admirably planned: of five arches,
three were blown to the ground.
CHIEF COMMANDANT GENERAL CHRISTIAN DE WET.
ANOTHER VTEW OE THE DESTROYED BRIDGE OVER THE VET RIVER.
honest enemy he respected. He treat-
ed his prisoners as well as, in the
circumstances, he could. But on traitors
to his nation he swore vengeance. He
would have liked to make short work
of all the Boers who acted as guides
to the enemy of their country, of all
his countrymen who had taken up
British arms to fight against him and
his faithful followers. He could for-
give, though he could not understand,
a man who took the oath of neu-
trality because he was weary of the
struggle for independence ; but that a
man should assist the enemy made him
furious. For De Wet is passionate and
hot-tempered. He would fly out against
his highest officer as against the lowest
burgher. But, when it was a question
of saving his fellows at the risk of his
own life, he knew no moment's hesita-
tion and would at once obey the impulse
of his heart. The loss of a burgher
who had done his duty touched him
deeply, though he said little, the sombre,
When Lieutenant Xix, the Dutch
military attache, was fatally wounded
at Sanna's Post and had to be left
behind in a farm-house, because De
Wet had no ambulance with him, he
stood long by the bed-side of the
wounded man, holding his hand in
his own. The tears stood in his eyes
as he expressed his regret at having to
leave the gallant young Hollander, and
he could not tear himself away until
his commandoes were far ahead with the
Under a hard and sombre husk,
De Wet conceals a noble kernel, a sen-
sitive heart, an honourable character and
a sacred love of country.
It was shortly after he had heard
of the destruction of his homestead.
He rode off accompanied by only two
faithful comrades, Generals Froneman
and Piet Fourie. It was a flying, silent
ride. When they approached his place,
De Wet rode on alone, while the two
officers posted themselves on a neigh-
bouring kopje. The great general re-
mained long away. He knelt bv the
grave of one of his children and prayed :
HEROES OF THE BOER WAR.
and then, with one last look, printed
the image of the destruction deep in
his memory. Then he returned to his
two silent companions, and the ride
back was resumed with the same silence
as before. This time there gleamed no
moisture in De Wet's eyes; but his face
was set and pale and the lips pinched
For long, no one knew of this pil-
grimage to De Wet's destroyed dwelling,
until General Fourie told the story
A SCOUT. F. K. FRANCIS.
his sacred conviction that he saw a
higher Power in all things, and he was
prepared to accept his lot, whatever it
might be, at the hands of the Supreme
Being. But this he had said to Eng-
land, that his death or his capture
should not put an end to the struggle
in the Free State. In one of his well-
known speeches, delivered shortly be-
fore his invasion of the Cape Colony,
"Should I drop out of the fight, 1
CHIEF COMMANDANT COMMANDANT
GENERAL DE WET. VANGRAHX.
F. K. COLSON.
GENERAL DE WET, HIS SECRETARY, SOME COMMANDANTS, FIELD
CORNETS AND A SCOUT AT POTCHEFSTROOM.
to Dr. van Broekhuizen , the predi-
kant at Pretoria. At the same time, I
have never heard the assertion con-
firmed that De Wet declared that this
piece of destruction should cost Eng-
land seven millions. To believe such
a tale would be to do an injustice to
the noble impulses of Oom Chrisjan's
General De Wet was aware of the
power and influence which he wielded.
But he modestly denies that he pos-
sessed any special gifts. He declared as
have appointed my successor."
And, when a man like De Wet
spoke thus, it was safe to rely that
the successor would have been worthy
of his master.
De Wet represented the borough of
Boven Modder River in the Volksraad.
With his resolute spirit of independence,
however, he took up his duty in the
manner which he thought best. He
CHIEF COMMANDANT GENERAL CHRISTIAN DE WET.
was chary of speech and, when he had
anything to say, was brief and to
the point. On the other hand, when
unimportant subjects came under dis-
cussion, he disappeared from the Volks-
raad and went to Johannesburg- or Kim-
berley on business. Many of his con-
stituents refused to be reconciled to this
view which their representative took of
his duties, and it was an open question
whether De Wet would have been re-
elected. Not that he would have cared,
for he was never a man who strove for
power and consideration. Nor had the
tortuous paths of politics any attraction
for him. He did not understand them,
perhaps refused to understand them.
He may not have shone in the Volks-
raad, but he was always a man of
strong and doughty character.
CAPT. ALLUM CAPT. DEMANGE
COL. GURKO MR. FISCHER
(Russia). (Orange Free State).
(United States of
MILITARY ATTACHES AND THEIR ADJUTANT, MR. FISCHER. It was difficult for
the attach/is to keep up with the Doer Commandoes, because of the latter's mobility;
dangerous too, as was proved by the loss of the Netherlands attache, Lieut. Nix, who was
mortally wounded at Sanna's Post (1 April 1900). Bnt they were always eager to be present
at the interesting Boer incursions and enthusiastic in their praises of Boer tactics.
J. H. DE LA REY,
THE TRANSVAAL GENERAL, EORMERLY MEMBER OF THE FIRST VOLKS-
RAAD OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN REPUBLIC FOR LICHTENBURG.
GENERAL J. H. DE LA REY.
GENERAL, hadn't we better go and
talk somewhere else?"
It was at Magersfontein , on a cool
and lovely morning, towards the end of
December 1899. General Cronje and
his staff had come to make their morning-
inspection of Major Albrecht's laager,
where I had spent the night as the
guest of the Free State Artillery. Oom
Piet had climbed Spionkopje with his
officers, who stood examining the British
camp at Modder River, also known as Two
Rivers, through their field-glasses. Oom
Koos De la Rey remained talking to me.
He wore a white silk necktie round his
throat and a large grey wide-awake
on his head; in his left hand he held
a piece of biltong, in his right hand a
formidable- looking knife, with which
he cut the sun-dried meat into slices,
holding them down on his knife with his
thumb and thus conveying them to his
mouth. Three or four shells had burst at
a hundred paces from us, for the English
were wishing us good-morning. I found
the place a little unheimisch, and, at
any rate, was not able to devote as
much attention as I could have wished
to the conversation. The Transvaal
general, on the other hand, was too
much engrossed in it to take much
notice of the shells falling around us.
We were speaking of the evacuation
of the positions at Two Rivers, on the
28th of November 1899, when General
De la Rey had commanded the position
which had been most vigorously bombard-
ed by the English. Evening fell, and,
for the first time since his advance
to the relief of Kimberley, the enemy
had been unable to force the burgbers
to retire. The English were falling
back, when suddenly General Cronje,
who commanded the combined Repub-
lican forces, gave the incomprehensible
order to evacuate the position. Furiously,
De la Rev exclaimed:
"But don't you see we've kept the
Cronje, stubborn as ever, stood to
IIEKOKS OF THK I'.OKIJ WAR.
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his opinion. The Fauresmith
commando had been driven from
its positions and this, to his
mind, made a longer stand at
Two Rivers unpractical. The
orders of the general com-
manding-in-chief were executed;
but when, next morning at
day-break, two of the Boer
guards visited the abandoned
positions, there was no English-
man in sight.
"My son was killed there,"
General De la Rey resumed,
"but his loss did not cost me
so many tears as the abandon-
ment of the Two Rivers posi-
tions. Had Ave remained there,
the English would have been
compelled to fall back upon
Great River; for there is not
enough water for so many
men and beasts between Modder
River Station and the Orange
River. Once we had got them
back so far, we could easily
have effected a junction with
our forces under Grobler and
Hendrik Schoeman at Coles-
This subject made Oom
Koos so sad and affected him
so greatly that he paid no
attention to the shells bursting
The morning and the con-
versation will remain in my
memory all my life long.
Melancholy sounded in his
voice: I read sorrow in his
honest eyes. It made me shiver
to hear him say:
"My son was killed there,
but his loss did not cost me so
many tears as the abandonment
of the Two Rivers positions.''
It was the first time I had
heard the cause of liberty raised
in such sacred earnest above
everything, even above a
GENERAL J. II. DE LA KEY.
father's love for his child; and
those words always returned to my
memory when, afterwards, I learnt how
De la Rey had defended his positions
to the last. On each occasion I felt
within myself how much pain, how
many scalding tears those retreats must
have cost him.
One who saw the general but a
short while ago has told rue that his
hair and beard have turned quite white.
I can easily imagine it; but it was not
necessary for him to add that his spirit
remained unbroken. I knesv that. I
and, on the 7th of March 1902, at
Tweebosch, he captured General Lord
Methuen and his force.
Wherever things were going badly,
De la Key was sent forthwith. When
the Boer commandoes on the Western
frontier, south of Kim berley, were refusing
to act together, De la Rey went down
to restore harmony and effect the ad-
vance towards Great River. Unfortu-
nately, while he was on his way to Mafe-
king, the Boers were driven from their
positions at Belmont, on the 23rd of
November 1899, and, two days later,
TRANSVAAL ARTILLERY WITH HOWITZERS AT THE SIEGE OP MAFEKING
None but Boers served these howitzers. The precision of their aim was much admired by
the foreign officers who saw them in action.
knew Oom Koos. He was the most
energetic of all the Transvaal leaders.
He was at the same time the most
irreconcilable. He would have grimly
defended his independence to the death.
He was the De Wet of the South
African Republic and can boast of
having achieved the first success in
this war and also the last great Boer
victory. On the 12th of October 1899,
at Kraaipan, he derailed and captured
the armoured train and took Captain
Nesbitt, V.C.j and his 30 men prisoners;
on the 25th, they had to yield before
superior forces at Rooilaagte, or Graspan,
although on this occasion De la Rev
took part in the battle. I have already
described above to what good purpose
he fought at Two Rivers.
Gradually, mutual confidence among
the burghers was restored. If General
Cronje, however, had succeeded in car-
rying out his plans, the Battle of
Magersfontein would certainly have been
lost as well. Oom Piet, who could never
give up his peculiar preference for po-
MAJOR ALBRECHT, the commandant of the Free State Artillery, the man who
turned his two hundred men into a model corps. By birth a German, after taking part
in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71, Major Albrecht was charged by the Free State
with the formation of a corps of artillery-men. He acquitted himself of his task with
true German thoroughness: his corps was an example of bravery, strict performance of
duty, and capacity. Major Albrecht was taken prisoner in General Cronj£'s surrender
at Paardenberg, on the 27th of February 1900.
GENERAL .1. IT. DR LA REY.
sitions on the kopjes, in spite
of the fatal results of these
positions experienced by the Boers
at Belmont and Rooilaagte, had
again had trenches dug in the
mountain -side. General De la
Hey, however, brought all his
influence and persuasive power
to bear upon the council of war
to have ditches dug at some
distance from the mountain. His
advice was taken and, in con-
sequence, the English chance
of hitting their aim became so
much the smaller. Oom Piet,
however, refused to be recon-
ciled to these tactics, until the
bombardment before the Battle
of Magersfontein made their use
as clear to him as day. The
whole day, from noon till after
sun-down, the English searched
the kopjes from top to bottom
with 48 guns. The result was
that five burghers were slightly
Oom Piet's trenches lay full
of splintered shells and rocks.
In Oom Koos's positions, where
the Transvaalers were sheltered,
one shell only had fallen;
while the Boers in those ditches
had not been troubled by the
broken pieces of rock , which
usually cause more men to be
killed and wounded than the shells
Meanwhile, General Schoeman
was allowing himself to be
turned out of his finest positions
at Colesberg and running every
chance of being surrounded.
De la Rey was sent down to
aid him, and soon all the lost
positions were recovered.
Still, he was allowed no
rest. On the 15th of February
1900, Magersfontein was evacua-
ted. Kimberley was relieved
and Cronje surrounded on the
I IK HOES OF THE BOER WAR
16th. Oom Koos received orders to
display his talents again. He was de-
layed, however, at Bloemfontein, and
Cronje had surrendered before De la
Key, with his best commandoes, was able
to reach him.
AtPriefontein, near Abraham's Kraal,
on the 10th of March 1900, the enemy
came in touch with the combined forces
of the two friends, De Wet and De la
Rey; and, although panic had set in,
the latter succeeded in keeping his
burghers together. The Johannesburg
and Pretoria Police made a gallant
stand. De la Rey was everywhere.
He inspired his men , as usual ; but
the superiority of numbers was too
great, and at last, when the British
bayonets gleamed at a short distance
and the dark circle of the surrounding-
troops came ever menacingly nearer,
the Boers fled. Oom Koos had given
the order to retreat. His keen glance
had taken in the situation, and he saw
that this was no time for hesitation.
The occasion was too pressing.
This watchfulness, this care never
to overlook a trifle which might prove
fatal were De la Rey's characteristic
qualities. They served him in attack,
they were of use to him in defence. The
Aveak point in a position, a cordon, a
line struck him as it were by instinct.
At Two Rivers, he was surrounded,
with 1,600 men, but scarcely had he
perceived the clanger threatening him,
when he at once saw the place where
he could break through, and swiftly
executed the manoeuvre which cost him
hardly a life.
Another quality that distinguished
him as a general was his knowledge
of men. When he gave a difficult or
important order, he knew the man whom
he entrusted with it. When it became
necessary to undertake a decisive and
undaunted attack, he selected the bravest
of his fighting men, and there was no
danger of the plan miscarrying through
any case of individual cowardice, as so
often happens with undisciplined forces.
But then De la Rey kept a sharp eye
on his burghers. Should he catch one
of them wavering, he would at once
drive him on, or contemptuously send
him away; and, when necessary, he led
the attack at their head.
His orders were short, but to the
point. At Two Rivers, the entire escort
of Major Albrecht's Free State Artillery
ran away. The major had no one to
dispatch with news of his critical posi-
tion; but De la Rey had noticed it.
He saw that the English were advancing
towards the kopje where the guns stood,
sent for his brother and said, simply:
"Take three hundred men and bring
in the guns."
The guns were saved; but of the
whole force under the orders of Oom
Koos, probably no other man would
have been able to execute this command.
De la Rey hates sitting still: to
him, work, action are a necessity. Gen-
eral Cronje, who, after the Battle of
Magersfontein, spent nearly two months
in inactivity, was a mystery to him.
Oom Piet had to listen to many a
hard truth from his lips; but De la
Rey could never move him to action.
No one was more disappointed with
Cronje"s much -praised strategy than
Oom Koos, who was really glad when
he was sent from Magersfontein to
Colesberg, where work awaited him.
He was not the man to stand under
other generals, even though he knew
how to obey. He was too energetic, too
pushing for others. He himself was
always more thorough than his superiors.
He was quite able to act independently.
His commandoes, we know, were the best
clad and best fed of them all. This is
no matter for surprise: they lacked neither
food nor clothes so long as the English
imported them. Oom Koos took care
that his commandoes captured new sup-
plies as they required them.
This was one of the reasons why
his burghers remained so undauntedly in
GENERAL .1. II. DE LA BEY
the field, in spite of cold and privations.
Another reason, of course, was their
confidence in Oom Koos's tactics; and
a third was to be found in his personal
character. He has a violent temper:
that is not to be denied. The dark
eyes of his characteristic head clearly
point to his passionateness. And yet
he was not impetuous. He never hurried
where importantquestions were concerned.
And he is as honest as the day. He
did not keep his opinion to himself,
but told it roundly, whether flattering
or offensive. He despised cowards and
liars with all his heart, and, when he
flew out at them, made them feel
small and humiliated. He made no
bones of punishing a coward with his
cartridge-belt or sjambok. Liars and
cowards stood in terror of him; yet
he turned many a poltroon into a hero.
Oom Koos was never sullen and
surly like Cronje. He is affable, but
serious. He has not Louis Botha's
attractive smile; but, by the bed-side of
the sick and wounded, his dark eyes
would express all his sympathy. And
the same man who had sat weeping by
that bed-side would sign a traitor's death-
sentence with features riged as iron.
In the First Volksraad, Oom Koos
sat as Member for Lichtenburg. He
was very regular in his attendance;
spoke often, but not too often; was
liable to terrible fits of temper; and
was afraid of nobody. He respected
President Kruger as a statesman, but
used to criticize him severely as an
administrator; and, on such occasions,
he would sometimes say more than was
seemly in the mouth of one of the
representatives of the people towards
the grey Head of the South African
Republic. But, like most passionate
people, he was always the first frankly
to ask for pardon, and he can boast of
having made very few enemies.
GENERAL J. KEMP.
THE TRANSVAAL GENERAL, FORMERLY MEMBER OF TE SECOND VOLKSRAAD
OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN REPUBLIC FOR THE WITWATERSRAND GOLD
FIELDS (JOHANNESBURG, etc.).
GENERAL BEN VILJOEN.
FROM policeman to general. That is
Ben Viljoen's career.
Not so very many years ago, the
man destined to be called upon to be
Assistant Commandant General had been
a policeman at Roodepoort, near
Krugersdorp. But he always felt an
impulse for higher things, and soon
there began to appear in Land en
Volk, at Pretoria, a series of cau-
series on the Volksraad signed "Klein
Joggom." Our representatives sometimes
grew angry at the jokes which Little
Joggom made at their expense , but
they were obliged to admit that his
gossip was often amusing. Various
nicknames which he gave to the
members became popular. These cau-
series were his first steps on the slippery
path of politics. At that time he was
still a decided Joubertite.
Humorous journalism alone was
not enough to satisfy Ben Viljoen's
ambition; he wanted to be something
more than a mere tattler, and he
founded a paper of his own at Krugers-
dorp, which he called Ons Volk. He
had already resigned his billet as a
guardian of the peace. He determined
to live by his pen alone. His little
paper succeeded, for no one can write
such pleasant Africander as Ben Viljoen.
Gradually he became the man in
Krugersdorp. The burghers elected him
a field cornet and, later, commandant
of the corps of Mounted Volunteers
which he had levied. In spite of all
these distinctions, he did not look upon
himself as a man of importance: he
remained a wag, with an imperturbable
good temper, who made friends with
all the world.
As an officer, he learnt to know
Joubert better, and repeatedly attacked
him in his paper. He had no patience
with Joubert's administration, which
seemed to him too complicated. After
the Jameson Raid , Ben became a
Krugerite, and when, at the last presi-
dential election, the proprietors, in the
face of his vehement and excited
protests, sold Ons Folk to the Schalk
Burgerites, Ben would not own himself
beaten, but at once began to support
11KROES OF THE BOER WAR.
Kruger's candidature with another paper,
the Voortrekker, and enjoyed the satisfaction
of seeing that Ons Volk was unable to
hold its own against its new competitor.
The member of the Second Volksraad
for Johannesburg was to retire. Ben
Viljoen was nominated as the candidate
of the anti-capitalists and elected.
Ben now became dignified. He dressed
himself, in accordance with the rules of
the Raad, in black from top to toe, and
for his own pleasure and adornment bought
a grey top hat. This conventional attire
suited him quite as well as his police
or cavalry uniform, for he is a fine-
looking man. His is not, however,
the regular Africander type. He is
slender, with clear-cut features, a dapper
moustache, clean-shaven cheeks and
chin , and hair cut in the English
fashion. The ladies think him charm-
ing; his colleagues in the Raad thought
him one of the best of fellows.
And so Ben became dignified. He
no longer took part in all sorts of
uproarious jokes, and he devoted himself
with his usual energy to his new duties,
while happily retaining his sense of
humour and his genial conversational
powers. In the Volksraad, he showed
himself a good speaker and an opponent
of half measures.
I heard, at the time, from an
authoritative source that, in one of the
secret sittings of the Volksraad before
the war, Ben had a violent difference
with Mr. R. K. Loveday, then Member
for Barberton, which ended in Ben's
being ordered by the Speaker to apolo-
gize to his colleague. Ben apologized
for the words he had used, but not
for the tendency of his remarks. He
had spoken with conviction and declared
that he would stick to his guns. I
do not know whether the story is true,
but I believe it, first, because I have
BATTLE ON THE TUGELA. DEFENCE OE VAALKKANS : 5 February 1900. Ben
Viljoen's commando defended the position with great pluck. There was a hand-to-hand
fight, but, in spite of their great numbers, the British were unable to capture a single gun.
All admiration is due to the Boers for their determined resistance, and to the heroism displayed
by General Ben Viljoen, who brought off a gun when the artillerymen who served it had all
been shot down.
GENERAL BEN VIL.TOKN.
TEANSVAAL MAUSER BANDOLEER WAISTCOAT, worn by the Boers, who used to ornament
them with the numbers and badges of the British regiments. There is a monogram of tin; South
African Republic on the pocket in the centre. The police who formed the regular army wore
this monogram on their shoulder-pieces. The arms in the centre of the last row are those
of the Orange Free State.
no doubt of the truthfulness of my
informant, who was in a position to
know, and, secondly, because I know
Ben's excitable but upright character.
In fact, I was surprised to hear
later that, as commandant of the Krugers-
dorpers, he dealt very calmly with his
people, preferring to argue with them
rather than storm at them.
Moreover, he never lost his cheer-
ful temper and never became despondent.
He showed himself to be indefatigable,
implacable and young, strong and
In the early part of the war, the
conditions were not favourable to Ben's
distinguishing himself. At Elandslaagte
(21 October 1899), he succeeded in
extricating his commando in safety;
although, at first sight, it seemed
strange that he was the only one to
perform the feat.
AtLadysmith,theEnglish never attack-
ed his cam]), but contented themselves
with bombarding him from time to time.
General Joubert , who saw thai
Spion Kop was an important point of
defence, sent Viljoen down to the
Tugela, in November 1899, to occupy
the hill. He remained encamped on
the kop until the 10 th of January
1900, without being troubled by the
British. Then he received orders to
occupy the Vaal Krans, and scarcely
had he left Spion Kop before the
English stormed it (23-24 January 1900).
At last, on the 5th of February
1900, the English attacked his position,
but with so great a force that he was
unable to hold the Vaal Krans. By
BEROES OF THE BOER WAR.
his personal courage he saved a Maxim-
Nordenfeldt gun from the hands of
the enemy. This crack feat compelled
the admiration of the British and
inspired one of Mr. Winston Churchill's
finest letters in the Morning Post.
On this occasion, Ben experienced the
poisonous effects of the lyddite shells.
He obtained sick leave, and, on return-
ing to commando, took part in the
mained there an hour without off-
saddling, and rode on, not quite so
merry, but as full of good courage and
as high-spirited as ever.
Ben is a man who takes a joyful
view of life, but, at the same time, he
is serious enough not to become in-
different when things come to the
worst. A cheerful mood reigned in
his camp, and his tent was the source
D. J. E. M. J.
NEL ERASMUS PRINSLOO VILJOEN
GROUP OF BOER COMMANDANTS ON ^THE KLIP RIVER, NEAR JOHANNESBURG.
This picture'was taken just before the great battle on 28 May 1900, when all the forces united
under Lord Roberts were needed to capture the positions held by 2,000 Boers. Lord Roberts
succeeded, but only after he had encountered the most determined resistance. His losses
were very heavy. Johannesburg was occupied by him on the 31st of May.
engagement at Pietershill (27 February
1900), marched to Van Tonder's Nek,
repelled an attack of the Natal Volun-
teers, and occupied Laing's Nek in the
On the 28 th of May 1900, he
played a prominent part in the fight
at Klip River, near Johannesburg, and
persuaded the Boers to make their
unexpected stand against the mighty
British army. After the battle he
rode into Johannesburg at night, re-
which fed the general sociability and
The English soldiers had a sort of
fearful admiration for Ben Viljoen.
They had read such horrors about him
in the Jingo papers that they imagined
the most terrible things. In the British
camp at Ladysmith, he appears to have
been regarded as one who combined
every attribute of savagery in his own
person. Ben was heartily amused at
the tales concerning himself which
GENERAL BEN VILIOKN.
reached him from time to time, but he
did nothing to keep up his reputation,
was never rough towards the prisoners
and, on the contrary, treated them as
well as he could.
Whenever British prisoners were
brought into camp, their first question
"Is Joubert here and where is that
man Viljoen ?"
And then, when they saw "that
man Viljoen," they refused to believe
it was he. They had imagined someone
very different: a rough, uncivilized man,
who murdered every Briton that fell
into his hands.
One day a telegraphist and a corre-
spondent,who had escaped fromLadysmith,
were brought into his camp. They had
wandered about for nights together
without seeing a chance of getting
through the Republican lines. They
did not dare surrender: they feared lest
they should be shot on the spot by
"the barbarous Boers." At last they
fell into the enemy's hands. Viljoen
was informed of their capture. He
refused to have them brought before
him: the poor beggars must be tired;
and, producing two bottles of beer and
a couple of tins of meat, he said:
"Here, give them that, and let
them have a good night's rest."
It was his own . ration that he had
An English prisoner once said to
"General, they used to call you a
devil in our camp."
"Well," answered Ben, "that repu-
tation will do me no harm: you fellows
will run away quicker from a devil
than an angel."
Tommy laughed and thought the
Boer general right, although the latter,
with his pleasant, smiling face, looked
anything but diabolical. It was a
characteristic answer of Viljoen, the
smart journalist , numbers of whose
pithy Africander maxims are in circulation.
The words which he uttered shortly
before the outbreak of the war, "God
and the Mauser," became the battle-
cry of the Boers.
•t.T • -
BEN VILJOEN'S HEAD-QUABTEES. Under shelter of these protecting hills, round
about Ladysmith, the Boers pitched their camp. The guns, striking terror into the hearts of
the besieged, were placed at different points surrounding the town ; and the burghers made
every preparation for a sortie on the part of the garrison.
THE LATE CAPTAIN DANIE THERON,
COMMANDER OF THEKON'S SCOUTS.
THE LATE CAPTAIN DANIE THERON.
rPHE eyes and ears of General De Wet,
-■- and the boldest of all the Boer
combatants: that's what Danie Theron
He was short and slender, youthful,
almost boyish, in appearance, a little
awkward in his movements, but proud
and daring in his manner. He was a
crack horseman, a magnificent swimmer,
an excellent cyclist, an untiring runner,
the toughest and most persevering of
men. Among his comrades he was the
jovial talker who loved a good joke
and loved a good song. On active
service and in the field, he was the
leader who was able to make his fol-
lowers do anything by his example and
a single word of encouragement. In
peace, he was an attorney, at Krugers-
dorp; and, in the late war, was promoted
to captain of a corps of scouts.
Theron's Scouts were the torment
of the British's army. They knew its
numbers and its movements with aston-
ishing accuracy. They swarmed round
the men in khaki like flies, with this
difference , that , whereas the latter
decrease in numbers in winter, the saucy
scouts became ever more numerous. At
night, they rode beside the British
patrols, and, by day, hovered about the
enemy's camps in endless disguises. They
talked English or Africander, Scotch,
Irish or Welsh, as the occasion demanded.
They were Boers bringing their produce
to market, or British soldiers loitering
amid their comrades in arms. They
ventured close up to every position, and
dared attack every force when necessary.
They sold their lives dearly, but preferred
to ] (reserve them, if the speed of their
horses and the sureness of their aim
could save them. They were tricky and
venturesome, and enjoyed rare good luck.
To lure an English patrol into an
ambush was their delight; cleverly to
protect themselves against a snare was
their second nature. They were the best
where all were good, ever the first in
danger, ever the last to retire. Their
I THROES OH THE BOER WAR.
BOER CYCLIST. The Cyclist Corps consisted of young
men of the better classes. Their superior education had not
made tliem weaklings. They were in perfect training. Not
only were they able to keep their seat all day long, but they
were ready to carry their bicycles on their backs wherever the
roads were impassable. Rivers did not trouble them : lifting
their bicycles with strong arms well out of the water, they
would swim across the widest streams. Wind, rain, heat, nothing
came amiss to them. At the word of command, taking no
heed of the British fire, they were ready to dash through the
British lines and back again.
special duty was the covering of a
retreat; and they alone were at all
times ready to attack. They combined
in themselves all the innate fighting
qualities of the Boer, without his over-
cautiousness. There was no room for
cowards or blockheads in Theron's Scouts.
Danie wanted men on whom he could
rely, and it was considered an honour
to belong to his band.
The British officers were in despair:
all attempts to outwit Danie failed!
His scouts were hardly ever to be
captured, and to keep anything concealed
from them was quite as impossible. The
enemy knew Danie well and was too
well aware of the powerful and in-
dispensable help which he proved to
the slim De Wet. After the incident
of Honingspruit, on the 6th of June
1900, I heard English officers
"If only we could lay hands
Surely this was the most flattering
compliment that Danie could hope
to be paid.
When the war began to seem
inevitable, towards the end of
September 1899, Danie Theron
called, in the newspapers, for a
cyclist corps, which would serve to
carry reports and dispatches and
perform scouting work. At first,
he derived little satisfaction from
his call. The Boers thought that
the intention was to escape from
danger! But, so soon as the cyclist
service was organized and the
burghers saw that no rivers or
heavy roads, no hostile patrols,
no bullets of the enemy could stop
the dispatch-riders, they began to
respect the corps.
At Ladysmith and on the
Tugela, Theron soon mado a name
for himself. General Joubert used
to call for Danie all day long.
From early morn till late at
night, Theron was in the saddle.
His poor horse led a terribly fatiguing
life with him, who was tougher than
any Boer pony. Many is the animal
that dropped dead under him on his mar-
vellous rides: one day there were three of
them, but that was Danie's record. And,
very late at night, when it was time to
sleep, he would come back to laager
and, with his cheeky, drawling voice, say:
"Boys, I've got one more dispatch
to take, right across the enemy's fire.
Two boys must go with me."
The "boys" would pretend to sleep:
they thought they had done enough
for one day.
HEROES OF THE BOEB WAE.
"All right, I'll go alone,' growled
Danie to himself, not in the least upset,
only a trifle indifferent.
But this his lads would think a bit
too bad, and three or four of them
would jump up together, crying:
"I'll go with ye, Danie!"
That pleased him. He was content
with ever so
ance. He in-
the most risky
was as it should
be, he thought:
ant must do
his own hardest
And to the
men under him
he behaved as
none other did.
On a certain
day, one of
plained that his
were worn out
and that the
would have no
for a couple
of days. Danie
gave a glance
at his own
dent in a brand-
new pair, which he had bought for
himself at Krugersdorp the day before
he went on commando. Then he went
off to his tent, pulled an old pair of
breeches out of his chest, which he had
really thrown aside as too bad for further
wear, put them on, and gave his dispatch-
rider the new pair, which Danie had
TUNNEL NEAR LAING'S NEK WRECKED BY THE
BOERS. South view.
worn for the first time that day.
This incident is typical of Danie's
character. He was as good-natured as
he was undaunted. Repeatedly he would
gallop back to a just abandoned position
to fetch away a wounded comrade.
Shells might shriek and burst round
him: Danie remained calm and imper-
ing words of
that his men
ready to follow
him, and would
lives for him.
Yet he conti-
nued the same
cool and im-
who said so
little when the
time for action
came. He was
to his own
is why it was
that he first
among all the commandoes when he
had performed his famous ride with
secret dispatches to Cronjes invested
laager at Paardenberg (18-27 February
Meanwhile, the British spying service,
combined with frequent treachery, had
taught General De Wet the value of
THE LATE CAPTAIN DANIE TIIHKnV
accurate information. In the council of
war held at Poplar Grove on the 1st
of March 1900, Oom Chrisjan proposed
to form a scouting-corps which would
be entrusted exclusively with the
collection of necessary facts. Danie
Theron's courage, intrepidity and daring,
of which he had given so many signs
during his ride
were so recent
in their mem-
ory that the
him as the
leader of the
the rank of
proved fully of
of the corps,
which was at
first to number
men, each of
whom was to
have two horses
at his disposal.
in a very short
time, and the
was, in the highest degree, dangerous,
and very soon the less mettlesome
amongst them withdrew and returned
to their commandoes. Danie tried his
men one by one. He took a different
companion with him on each of his
adventurous expeditions, watched his
methods carefully, and, so soon as he
saw that the man was too chicken-
hearted or too slow-witted, explained to
him that he could not continue to use him.
In this way, Theron gathered round him
a corps of picked men, of whom lie
had every right to be proud. Not a
town was occupied by the English, but
one or more scouts were left behind
to observe the
which the place
No less than
eight of them
his speech in
square at Pre-
toria, after his
entry into the
ital on the
. r )th of June
1900; nor was
it until some
three days later
that our friends
left the city
along the race-
all this cunning, all this courage and in-
trepidity displayed by his subordinates,
Danie continued to remain the craftiest,
the most gallant, the most undaunted
and the most enterprising of them all.
This gave him a natural ascendancy over
his men; for to order them about and
"play the baas" was never his way.
NEAR LAING'S NEK WRECKED BY THI
BOERS. North View.
HEROES OF THE BOER WAR.
' m $&
ft V "^*(ct
Lr : ^
s 1 &jSv4?
id ^iT< 1 lM^^^
K, *. j
DANIE THERON'S SCOUTS: AT DINNER. The meals of the scouts were of the
simplest. Mohility was their first consideration. Their knapsacks contained provisions for
several days. Attached to the saddle were a mug and a coffee-pot. Dried cow-dung
served for fuel. As long as they had an ample supply of coffee and tobacco, they were
At Krugersdorp, Theron had been
known as a jolly companion, always
ready for a practical joke, friends with
everybody, on the best of terms with
Africanders and English alike, but hating
an unjust man with an inveterate hatred.
For this reason, he grew to loathe such
men as Moneypenny, the Editor of the
Johannesburg Star, who had come to
South Africa, without knowing the
country, its circumstances or its inhabit-
ants, only to support the principles of
the Rhodes party. A man who, in this way,
deliberately set himself up at Johannes-
burg to insult the Africander was bound
to drive Danie's passions to boiling
point. Had Moneypenny been an honest
Englishman, with ideas diametrically
opposed to Theron's own, assuredly Danie
would have had no difficulty in con-
trolling his rage, and the Editor of the
Johannesburg Star would have escaped
Danie was a furious opponent of
the Transvaal concessions. Not long
before the war, he wrote an elaborate
argument in the Volksstem, in which,
with his innate vehemence, he raised
his voice against the decision of the
First Volksraad in the matter of the
dynamite monopoly, and, if the war had
not broken out, he would certainly have
endeavoured to set a movement on foot
to obtain the revision of that resolution.
Not that his efforts would have stood
any chance of success, for the majority
in the Volksraad was too large, and
the decision itself the result of too
earnest a consideration; but Danie had
once and for all thrown himself on the
side opposed to the dynamite monopoly,
and no fear of being accused of English
Jingo sympathies would have affected
him, when once his convictions led him
Danie Theron was a Cape Colonist
by birth, wrote and talked Dutch as
easily as English, was a fluent speaker,
and too young to be a Conservative.
But, certainly, to be a Progressive and
to tamper with the enemies of the
Africanders were not synonymous in his
case, although in the South African
Republic the two things were nearly
THE LATE CAPTAIN DANIE THERON.
always named in one breath; often most
resolved that General
remain in the Free
the British lines of
Danie Theron was
appointed to second him, and new
commanders were chosen for the several
divisions of the famous scouting-corps.
How splendidly Danie acquitted himself
of his task and what brave assistance
he lent his leader is shown by the
When it was
De Wet should
State to harass
glorious feats-at-arms of the valiant De
Wet, who could speak with pride of
Theron's "half Englishmen," as Oom
Chrisjan used to call the scouting-corps,
which consisted in the main of young
men, born in Cape Colony, who had
become burghers through residence in
the Republic. Poor Theron was fated
not to see the end of the war. He
fell near Krugersdorp (August 1901).
Captain Celliers succeeded him as
commander of Theron's Scouts.
DANIE THERON'S SCOUTS: RESTING. Their repose is a well-earned one, for their
work has been heavy. They know no fear and sell their lives dearly. But they may take
their rest with perfect confidence in the vigilance of the sentry : they need fear no surprise
from the enemy.
JUDGE J. B. M. HERTZOG,
THE FREE STATE GENERAL.
JUDGE J. B. M. HERTZOG.
A man of sterling character, an honest,
upright Africander, an indefatigable
worker, a man of great capacity, of
rare swiftness in action and, to the last,
of unimpaired faith in the triumph of
the republican arms.
General though he were, he was long
addressed only by the title of Judge;
no one thought of calling him anything
else. For that matter, he looked more
like a scholar than a soldier, with his
dark eyes beaming and glittering behind
his gold-rimmed spectacles.
Those who knew him in Holland,
where he completed his legal training
in 1892, tell me that he used to be
of a calm and placid temperament. I,
who have known him on commando,
cannot readily picture him in that
light. He must have changed greatly
in these ten years. In Holland, too,
they pretend that he was tall and
massive. But, among the giants in
South Africa, he is classed as a man
of middle height. He is straight of
shoulder, a little angular, but lithe and
quick of movement. His dark com-
plexion, with the black beard and
moustache, point to a vehement tem-
perament. There is grit in his character.
The dark eyes flicker up suddenly
behind his glasses, and then it is time
to make one's self scarce, for he permits
nothing to frighten him: no display of
strength , no broad , burly figure , no
bold attitude. The biggest burgher,
who stands a foot higher than he, was
terrified, once "the judge" started, and
many a Free Stater who had neglected
his duty felt the nervous muscular
force of this slender man.
"But he is therefore a banja fine
fellow," one and all agreed.
He deserved this estimate, for there
are few who did as much as he in
this war. When it was necessary, he
fought. When there was no fighting to
be done, he was here, there and every-
where to settle the commissariat ar-
rangements. When he had finished this
i <; 4
HEROES OF THE BOER WAR.
task, he would take part in a council
of war, and his colleagues not only
listened to him as a jurist: his opinions
on strategy were of equal value; for,
like so many Africanders, he is a born
strategist. His judgment always gave
proofs of his clear insight into every
matter, while the gigantic quantity of
work which he performed bore witness
to his extraordinary and untiring dil-
Despite his knowledge and training,
he was always prepared to listen to
the views of others, even if those were
far from possessing his superior gifts.
He strove to improve his knowledge in
every direction , whether from one of
the Boer commandants, or the military
attaches, or the foreign officers fighting
on the side of the Boers.
All agree with one voice as to his
personal charm, his extensive learning
and his lofty principles, which latter he
so rigidly observes.
Judge Hertzog was ubiquitous. With
wonderful rapidity, he crossed the whole
country on his splendid horses: when
one steed needed rest, another was used.
No harnessing or saddling was ever
done fast enough to please him. His
Kaffir, who had acquired an uncommon
dexterity in this employment , was
always being urged to display still
greater speed, while the baas himself
lent a hand. Then boy and baas leapt
into cart or saddle with an agility
upon which no acrobat could have
improved, and dashed on ahead at a
rate at which an} 7 other would have
There was no great chance , there-
fore , of Hertzog's falling into the
British hands. He was the man of
men for guerilla tactics , in which
swiftness of mobilization plays so great
a part, and he knew how to communi-
cate this love of rapid movement to
his burghers without their perceiving
President Steijn consulted Hertzog
on all matters of importance when
Mr. A. Fischer had left for Europe.
The Free State jurist was constantly
galloping or steaming to and fro be-
tween his commando and the seat of
government, and, wherever he might
be, he was the heart and soul of every-
"Is Judge Hertzog here?" would be
heard from morn till night.
His advice was asked on every subject,
from the weightiest questions of State
to the most trivial family matters of
the burghers. A Boer would come
and complain to him with as great an
air of importance of the injustice of
the commissary in refusing to renew
his pass as would a general of the
neglect of one of his subordinate
commandants. Judge Hertzog was sure
to know of a solution of the difficulty,
or, at least, it would be strange indeed
if the judge were unable find one. True,
he would sometimes fly into a terrible
temper if a burgher came troubling
him about some trifle; but his temper
would go the instant the man had fled.
He declared that he had no time to
get angry. But it was no use coming
to him with excuses to obtain leave
from commando, and the burghers very
soon learnt to drop all such questions.
Any poor beggar , however , who was
really in want of something was wel-
come and certain of assistance; if the
aid could not be granted officially,
Judge Hertzog was never short of a
couple of pounds to give it himself.
It is astounding to think where he
obtained his knowledge of bread and
local laws , of shoes and military
positions. And none could settle a
question so quickly as he. He is an
uncommon mortal, who became furi-
ously angry with sluggards or men
who wished, worked, held principles,
did everything by halves.
He w r as as valiant as the bravest, but,
when he thought it better for the cause
of the country that he should not fight,
JUDGE J. B M. BERTZOG.
he feared no reproach of cowardice in
order to do other work of a more useful
character. At Magersfontein , on the
lltli of December 1899, throughout the
great battle, lie rode about behind the
positions , driving back the faint of
heart who were abandoning their posts.
He had learnt at Belmont, Rooilaagte
(Graspan), and Two Rivers (Modder
River) how infectious flight is, and was
determined to ensure as far as possible
that every burgher should do his duty.
The Battle of Magersfontein was won,
and the judge contributed more towards
the victory than if he had lain all day
in the trenches, Mauser in hand. The
cowards, of course, urged that it was
easy for him to drive them back while
lie himself kept out of danger: he took
no notice of their remarks and continued
to act as he thought necessary.
Judge Hertzog accompanied the
expedition to Kenhardt, Prieska and
Upington. in November 1899, at the
express request of President Steijn, and
was made judge of the districts occupied;
but they had hardly started before he
returned , as the British troops were
threatening Magersfontein for the
second time. Together with General
W. Kolbe, in whose laager he found
himself, he was strongly opposed to
allowing a portion of the cavalry,
which had broken through at Ron-
dafelsdrift, to enter Kimberley undis-
turbed. His example stimulated the
burghers to new and energetic efforts;
Kolbe's laager was hastily reinforced;
the British mounted troops were
beaten back; and General Du Toit
was enabled to bring his Long Tom,
which was erected near the Water
Works, into a position of safety.
Judge Hertzog is one of the few
persons in South Africa who have taken
degrees both in England and Holland.
He himself is an Africander and one of
the best type: a noble charact'T, who was
as firmly determined as the President to
fight to the bitter end. He belong ;■•
the Fauresmith District, and his wife,
who remained behind at Bloemfontein,
full of pride that her husband was still
under arms , was taken , together with
her eight-year-old son, to Port Elizabeth
and immured in the women's camp.
where the child died of the privations
which he endured.
I respect this judge, whose training
did not unfit him for the hard life
of the battle-field. I respect this man.
who cheerfully left wife and child,
hearth and home, to lead, in the service
of his country and his people . an
existence of privations unknown to him,
of wretchedness never imagined.
And how unbroken his spirit re-
mained is proved by his admirable
inroad into Cape Colony in December
1900, at the head of his commando,
and his operations there. As I have
already said, this nervous, pithy, dark-
complexioned lawyer is a man of
TBANSVAAL MAXIM GUN.
J. C. SMUTS,
FORMERLY ATTORNEY-GENERAL AND ASSISTANT COMMANDANT (JENERAL OF
THE SOOTH AFRICAN REPUBLIC.
J. C. SMUTS.
IT was after Dr. Leijds retired as State
Secretary and departed for Europe
as Envoy Extraordinary and Minister
Plenipotentiary of the South African
Republic. The Volksraad and Govern-
ment were at their wits' end. A new
State Secretary had to be appointed by
the First Volksraad; but those best
fitted for this position refused. Abra-
ham Fischer, of Bloemfontein, was the
favourite. The Transvaal people did their
utmost to induce Fischer to accept the
candidature, and he would certainly have
"If he had any conditions, they could
be granted; and, if any objections, they
could be removed."
The Free State people looked upon all
this with regret and persuaded Fischer
to remain. And he remained where
he was, for the Free State and his
position there were, in fact, too dear
to him that he should care to charge
himself with the ungrateful and dif'fi-
cult office of State Secretary of the
South African Republic. When Fischer
refused, the Transvaal Government really
not did know whom to approach. Should
they ask Dr. H. J. Coster, who had been
State Attorney in '96? They went to
see him. He would not think of it. Some
suggested Danie Wolmarans, and the
Opposition immediately agreed to this
suggestion; for then, at least, Danie.
with his prodigious
disappear from the
Danie was no lawyer
minds then turned to
"Who is Jan Smuts?
influence . would
and this was an
A few clever
most men asked.
Well, Jan Smuts was a young
lawyer from Cape Colony, who was
writing brilliant articles in Ons
Land on the crisis in the Supreme Court
in the South African Republic, when
Chief Justice Kotze had been relieved
from his duties. Jan Smuts was a true
young Africander, extraordinarily clever,
who had finished his legal training
in England brilliantly. He had set
up as a lawyer in Johannesburg, but,
in spite of his cleverness, the Eland
HEROES OF THE BOEE W'AIt.
capitalists disliked him: he was too
much of a patriot for their taste. As
for his candidature for the position of
State Secretary, his friends did what
they could; but his youth was an
insuperable objection. He was only
twenty-eight years old , and the con-
stitution of the South African Republic
required a State Secretary to be thirty
at least. Eventually, the Transvaal had
the good fortune to secure Judge Reitz,
the former President of the Sister Re-
public of the Orange Free State, to fill
that position; and Smuts became State
Even the most importunate were
now reconciled. A Transvaaler, Pre-
sident Kruger; a Free Stater, State
Secretary Reitz; and a Cape Colonist,
State Attorney Smuts: these were now
the leaders of the Government. It is
true that the State Attorney was not
an immediate member of Government;
but, as he was also an adviser in matters
of State, his influence upon the Govern-
ment was very considerable. Both the
Cape Colonists and the people of the
Free State were much pleased with the
choice: a fact requiring no argument.
Smuts performed his work with all
the activity appertaining to his youth.
The careers of the different State At-
torneys of the South African Republic
have been rich in interesting experiences;
but that of the last State Attorney has
excelled all others in this respect. He
accompanied President Kruger on bis
journey to Bloemfontein, in June 1899,
and took part in the conferences with
Sir Alfred Milner. It was he who had
the well-known conference with Mr.
Conyngham Greene, the British Agent
at Pretoria, from which Smuts, on his
side, understood that the British Govern-
ment would be satisfied if the Outlanders
were granted full burgher rights after
five years' residence: an assurance that
raised expectations in official circles in
the Transvaal which were never realized.
Smuts drew up the famous memoran-
dum in which he sketched, in the form
of a report to his Government, the points
of the conversation between himself and
the British Agent and the course which
it had assumed. He advised immediate
publication so soon as the evasive
answer of the British Government reached
Pretoria, on the 28th of August 1898.
The President however, who had grown
old in diplomacy, warned the young
functionary to remain calm and drew
his attention to the fact that the proposed
publication might possibly induce the
British Government to break off all
Smuts was convinced by this
solid argument and postponed the
publication of his memorandums. How-
ever, his youthful blood boiled with
indignation and he needed all his self-
control to refrain from speaking his
mind on what had happened. The love
for his country, which might be imperilled
by any rash action on his part, over-
came his indignation, and Smuts remained
silent until his turn to speak came.
In the meantime, he set himself to work
on the Century of Wrong, the plan of
which had been drafted by the State
Secretary, who also gave instructions as
to the tendency of the book. He worked
with indefatigable activity and devoted
his few hours of leisure to the compil-
ation of this pamphlet.
The last English Blue-book that
appeared before the war suddenly put
an end to the confidence which Smuts
had hitherto entertained in the British
Agent. The young State Attorney was
at least able to read, in this Blue-book,
that even Mr. Conyngham Greene was
not always to be relied upon to give a
faithful rendering of a conversation, and,
from that moment, he firmly refused to
be present at any of the many visits
which the British Representative paid
to Government Buildings at Pretoria.
State Attorney Smuts has undoubt-
edly done very much for the South
African Republic, and always with the
VIEWS OF CAl'K TOWN.
HEEOES OF THE HOKR WAR.
greatest devotion, strength of mind, in-
spiration and gladness. But it cannot
therefore be said that all that he did
was well done: he was too much lacking
in experience to be, as vet, a diplomatist.
He still placed too much confidence in
people; he had too eager a belief in
everybody's word. All the good and
bad qualities of youth were united in
him: impetuous efficiency, an indefati-
gable delight in his work, a too hasty
trust in success, and the noblest optimism.
But opposed to these stood his want
of practical experience. His official
negociations with the British Agent
were certainly based upon the best
intentions, but whether they were exactly
formal is another question.
His lack of official severity, which latter
is the characteristic of riper statesmen,
appears in a Century of Wrong, both
in his chapter on the Cape of Good
Hope and in his vigorous assertion that
Dingaan was instigated by the English,
in 1838, to murder Piet Retief and his
men: an assertion which is contradicted
by historians of standing, such as Theal
and Van Oordt, and which must natur-
ally diminish the value of Smuts' argu-
ments throughout the book in the eyes
of those who are enemies of his country.
But patriotism and indignation seethed
within him. What he lacked, as yet,
was quiet earnestness. He had not yet
learnt how to retain his equanimity in
all circumstances nor how to work on
quietly when wrath filled his heart.
As State Attorney, it was also his
business to draft projects of laws and
to defend and explain those projects in
the Yolksraad. One of these laws, the
so-called Law against Prostitution, bears
witness to his lack of practice. By
this law, the accused had to prove his
innocence, while the prosecution was
called upon to bring forward hardly
any proof of the offence. Even land-
lords were held responsible for the acts
of their tenants. Smuts drafted this
law: the doubtful honour belongs for the
most part to him. It cannot, however,
be denied that the evil had assumed
such proportions at Johannesburg that
a rigorous intervention had become a
mutter of urgent necessity. And the
State Attorney of the South African
Republic was certainly not the first
man to fail in finding the means by
which this social evil was to be fought.
But. apart from all this, Smuts
showed himself, in his official career, to
to be a young Africander of promising
talents. His intentions and endeavours
were all of the most sacred character,
the purest and the most sincerely Afric-
ander; and his unstained loyalty to his
country, his immaculate and enthusiastic
patriotism were the inward forces that
prompted him to great deeds. And,
had his career moved over a smoother
path , Smuts would have become an
important figure in the midst of the
young Africander nation. His character,
his knowledge, his clear brain, his un-
shaken will pointed to this with irref-
utable evidence. The office of State
Secretary of the South African Republic-
was waiting for him when once the
ripeness of years to come had brought
him experience. But the smoother path
towards that height remained closed to
Smuts. He had to participate in the
bitter sufferings and the tenacious
struggle of his compatriots. And, in
these sufferings, in this struggle, dan
Smuts showed himself great. Amid
all privations, all hard trials, it was he
again who excelled as the man predes-
tined to become one of the leaders of
his country. With enthusiasm he took
up his Mauser, to defend the good right
of the Africanders, which he so often
pleaded with the pen, and, if fate required,
to seal it with his blood. His pa-
triotism it was that made him one of
the bravest and ablest generals of the
Transvaal, the great support of De la
And, as a general, Smuts certainly
retained that conscientiousness and
J. C. SMUTS.
joviality which marie him such a sym-
pathetic figure in time of peace. The
lean and slender stature denotes his
force and his tenacity; the clear eyes
and the decisive knit of the brows are
tokens of his energy and power of
will. In appearance, he seems to be
younger than he really is, with his
clean-shaven face, his fair complexion,
the adolescence made even more striking
by his leanness.
But, even though Smuts the lawyer
was, for a time, dissolved in Smuts the
soldier, his incisive pen was not doomed
to inefficiency. His reports to Presidents
Steijn and Kruger concerning the misery
endured and the results inflicted by this
painful war proved in a marked manner
that that pen could still move the whole
world to rage against the execrable
actions committed during the war. Jan
Smuts taught us that a new Century
of Wrong had commenced for the
Africanders; but, from behind the heavy
wall of the British army, he shouted
to us, with austere emphasis:
•'We will endeavour to realize a
peace for the whole of South Africa
which will be worthy of the precious
sacrifices that have been made".
Truly, those were the words of a
young patriot, of a young hero of Young-
Africa. Such language, in such desperate
circumstances, marked the resolution
of his character and marked the man
To this young idealist, to him who
knew so well the sufferings of the
Africanders since the earliest days, it
must have been a bitter disillusionment
to draw up the protocol of peace, which
was signed on the 31st of May 1902.
Persuasive power and seizing arguments
must have been necessary to convince
him of the uselessness of further re-
sistance. Jan Smuts was not the man
to hesitate as long; as there were still
some thousands of men on the veldt:
Jan Smuts who, in August 1901, passed
with 200 Boers from the Potchefstroom
District in the Transvaal across the
block-house lines of the British military
posts, who pushed forward to the centre
of Cape Colony and there maintained
himself. There were other reasons thai
convinced Jan Smuts, and these are to
be found in the resolution in which
the representatives of the commandoes
at Vereeniging explain why they were
compelled to put an end to the war.
Jan Smuts, however, is too energetic,
too diligent and assiduous a man to
remain inactive. His destiny, his
influence amongst the Africanders, his
thorough knowledge of persons and
affairs have increased: Jan Smuts has
been through a hard school, through
which the ancestors of the Africanders
passed before him. 1 have no doubt but
that he will make the best use of his
knowledge for the sake of his people
and his country.
COMMANDANT FOl'CHK OF THE COLONY.
GENERAL S. G. MAR1TZ.
THE THREE BEST-KNOWN COMMANDERS IN THE COLONY
GENERAL S. G. MAEITZ.
A ssistant Commandant General Smuts's
-£** late deputy-general is a young man,
short of build, but powerful as a bull.
His physical strength is something out
of the common. He is said, during
the war, to have felled an enemy with
a single blow of his fist, so that the
man died the following day.
Maritz is young to have been a
general: he is barely twenty-five; but
he does not lack seriousness. His com-
rades say that he seldom laughs, that
he is a taciturn man, but braver then
the bravest. Maritz was born in Cape
Colony, but had lived for many years
in the Transvaal, where he was a dis-
tributor of passes to the natives and
where he became a fully enfranchised
burgher at the time of the Jameson
Raid. Like all young Boer officers,
Maritz began his career as a common
soldier. He at once distinguished
himself by his daring:
"Maritz says little, but does much,"'
his officers used to declare.
In February 1901, he entered Cape
Colony under DeWet; but, with many
other little bands, was cut off from the
main body and remained in the Colony
under Commandant Malan, who, in April
1901, in accordance with instructions from
the Free State, sent him to the north-
western districts. He started from Graaf
Reinet and travelled right across the
Colony with eight men, galloping,
crawling, creeping, feeling his way
through the British lines, but always
o-ettinff through. He shrank from no
obstacle and, at last, reached IVieska,
where, for the first time, he was able
to display his unequalled intrepidity.
The eight men who had performed the
whole journey with him formed the
nucleus of his commando. There w;i>
nothins that he dared not undertake
HEROES (>F TJIK liOKK WAR.
with them. They would never leave
him in the lurch and they knew that
Maritz never hesitated to attack. At
Blauwijzer, on his way to the North-
West, he had ventured to engage 60
English horsemen; at Brandvlei, with
ten men, he had fought a strong British
patrol: and be had nearly always left
the Held a winner. His little commando
constantly increased in size. He had
no arms; but he obtained them from
his English prisoners. The eight men
grew into twenty and eventually into
a hundred. They were all young fellows,
who knew no fear. They included the
five Free Staters who had escaped from
Ceylon and returned to the commando
over St. Petersburg and Amsterdam;
they included Andries De Wet, who
disliked the applause which he received
in Germany when lecturing for the
Boer cause and who eventually returned
to Cape Colony to take up his rifle
again for his people. Among Maritz'
men was de Kersanson , the French
nobleman, a nephew of Count de Ville-
These were the men whom the silent,
brave Maritz had under him; and, with
75 of such men, he dared to pass through
the whole of the North -West of Cape
Colony to Cape Town and join the
other commandoes in the neigbourhood.
It was he who captured the remount
depot at Bergstad, at ten hours' ride
from Table Bay. It was he who pene-
trated with his commando to within
five hours of Cape Town and, on the
1st of October 1901, captured the
Cyclists' Corps. Nothing came, in the
end, of the attack on Cape Town; but
Maritz returned to the North- West of
the Colony with an exceptionally rich
booty in horses, cattle and mules.
He was now a general: Assistant
Commandant General Smuts had pro-
moted him. His first act in his new
capacity was to lay siege to Ookiep, in
April 1902. The news of the conclusion
of peace came soon after. Maritz' men
were jubilant. They were certain that
this peace meant the preservation of
the independence of the two Republics.
It fell to General Smuts to dispel this
happy dream , and many of the un-
daunted fellows wept: Maritz among
them. He and some of his faithful
followers refused to lay down their
arms: had they not nearly always been
the victors? And so they crossed the
frontier of German South- West Africa
and came to Europe.
What will their future be? They
do not know; they do not ask: time
will show. But it was too much to
ask of Maritz that he should own him-
self beaten: of Maritz, who was thrice
wounded in the war; of Maritz, the
doughty knight without fear and with-
THE LATE COMMANDANT
G. J. SCHEEPERS.
I met poor Scheepers at Bloem-
fontein in December 1899. It was a
scorching clay. The heat shimmered over
the sand in the broad market-place, which
lay completely deserted. I was sitting
out on the verandah of the Free State
Hotel, drowsily dozing with heat and
boredom. Then, suddenly, a young man
came stepping across the square, soli-
tary in the wide spaciousness of the
market-place. He came up to the hotel
and went past me with a short military
salute. A moment later, we were sitting
talking on the verandah. The young
man was Scheepers. He was a tele-
graphist in the Free State Artillery.
I asked him if he did not find life
on commando difficult.
"Difficult? That life is not difficult.
I expect we shall get it banja more
difficult one of these days.''
HEROES OF THE BOER WAR.
Then 1 saw that Scheepers did not
belong to the optimists who were con-
vinced that the days of Magersfontein,
Colons!) and Storm berg would last:
-Our people are too fond of going
Scheepers grew excited. His large
dark eyes flashed fire and he uttered
words which one would not have ex-
pected from this young - fellow, with
the laughter -loving eyes and mouth,
who gave so great an impression of
the love and strength of life. And,
talk was inter-
rupted by the
sprang up and
went to meet
him. He be-
came a differ-
place and the
their merriment; and the clear, gay,
lusty voices sounded long in my ears.
Scheepers was right to pronounce
a bitter judgment on the leave-takers.
He himself remained in the field when
adversity came and "life became banja
difficult." As De Wet's adjutant, he
passed through Oom Chrisjan's famous
military school, and with success; for
he learnt, with cunning adroitness, al-
ways to escape the threatened surrounding
movements and to obtain advantages
against the enemy.
In December 1900, he invaded the
• !i dony at the same time as Kretzinger and
Judge Hertzoy;. He soon received his own
commando. It numbered only 40 men;
but he was able, on the 31st of Au-
gust 1901, to report to De Wet that
THE LATE COMMANDANT G. J. SCHEEPERS.
he now had 240 men under his orders.
They never suffered want. All the
corn which the English had command-
eered and accummulated at Graaf Reinet,
Aberdeen and Willowmore was captured
by Scheepers in May 1901; and this
supply fed him and his men through
the whole of the winter of that year.
His report to De Wet, of the 31st
of August 1901, fell into the hands
of the English. In this report he set
forth his plan of campaign for the
coming summer. He intended to go
west, in the
The enemy was,
was unable to
spoil his plans.
far into Cape
Colony as his.
a picked corps.
There were so many who were eager
to join him that he was able to reject
all but the most active and resolute.
His men were always well-dressed and
well-fed and behaved in exemplary
fashion as each new village was occu-
pied. Eventually even the Capt Times
was compelled to admit that the 750
men who , in the end, fought under
Scheepers consisted in the main of well-
to-do Cape Colonists, owners of landed
Scheepers fell ill on commando and,
at last, on the 10th of October 1901.
was captured by the enemy at a farm-
house near Kopjeskraal, where he had
been left behind. Ill as he was, he
had led his commando till the last.
When the pursuing column was so close
THE THREE BEST-KNOWN COMMANDERS IN THE COLONY
upon his heels that there was a danger
of his falling into the enemy's hands,
he sprang with his sick body from his
cart and escaped on horseback.
Scheepers' trial lasted long: it had
to be constantly adjourned because he
was too ill to attend. He defended
himself personally against all the accu-
sations brought against him. English
soldiers gave evidence of his humane
treatment. But Scheepers , the poor
sick Scheepers, was shot on the 18th of
Januari 1902. He died as he had fought,
GENERAL G. H. KRETZINGER.
Kretzinger also entered Cape Colony
on the 16th of December 1900, with
150 men. His commando was soon the
leading one and
he was promo-
ted to Assist-
ant Chief Com-
the Colon} 7 .
after the other,
he inflicted a
on the English.
twenty - eight -
year- old Afric-
gan to be
''cut off," and
GENERAL G. H. KBETZINGEB.
"hard pressed," and
'surrounded," and so
But he always escaped; nor did
he permit these military performances
to interfere with the pleasures of daily
life. All the English soldiers could
not prevent him from playing foot-ball
or riding with the Colonial young
At last, on the 15th of August
1901 , General French drove him
back across the Orange River and
occupied all the drifts; but Kretzinger
made his way into the Colony again
in December 1901. He crossed the
railway at De Aar and, on the 16th of
December 1901, when endeavouring to
save a wounded comrade at Hanover
Road, fell heavily wounded into the hands
of the English. Like Scheepers, he was
nursed up in order to undergo his trial by
court-martial; but, more fortunate than
Scheepers, he was acquitted in April
And yet the accusations against
Kretzinger were of a more serious cha-
racter. In August 1901, he wrote to
General French that he would shoot
any black who had served in the British
Army as a
spy that fell
into his hands;
and, on the
13th of July
1901, he had
issued a procla-
mation in which
all Kaffirs who
vices to the
told heavily, in
against a Boer
officer: so hea-
vily that the British Colonial Secretary
expressed his indignation against it in
the House of Commons on the 8th of
Nevertheless, Kretzinger was acquitt-
ed; but he had felt the pistol at his breast.
A TYPICAL BOER GIRL
SOUTH AFRICAN WIVES AND DAUGHTERS.
THE influence of the South African
women in this war has been modest
and discreet. When the world's press
spoke of the deeds of the Boers, but
few words were devoted to the mighty
share taken by the African women in
this gigantic struggle of the small Boer
people against the most powerful nation
that the world contains.
The call of some of them to their
sisters to take over the men's duties
and perfom police service met with but
little echo. Not that our women are
lacking in courage, but they felt that
their strength lay elsewhere and that,
when man and wife fulfilled their
respective duties, there was enough to
do for both, and each would have as
great a share as the other in the
arduous struggle for the independence
so dear to them.
Not every woman has shown herself
a heroine in this war, as little as every
man has shown himself a hero. There
are women, alas! who entreated their
husbands to remain at home, immediately
after the appearance of Lord Roberts'
first proclamation of the 31st of May
1900, in which the Boers were called
upon to lay down their arms, lest they
should be treated as rebels and lose
their homes and chattels. But in sharp
contrast with these stood the cases in
which the women urged the men to
courage and perseverance , when the
latter were marching away with the
knowledge that presently the enemy
would approach their houses, drive away
all their cattle, and rob their wives and
children of roof and home!
I will mention only one of many
striking instances of this heroism on
the part of the women. It was on
the 11th of March 1900. The news
had penetrated to General Kolbe's farms,
about six hours' distance from Bloerafon-
tein, that the English were marching
on the capital and that our burghers
had been forced , after a stubborn
resistancp, to abandon their position:-
THE FRKE SPATE G] NERAL.
SOUTH AFRICAN WIVES AND DAUGHTERS.
at Driepan. It was a rich homestead;
the house was elegantly and tastefully
furnished; the fields were tilled with
the aid of all the latest inventions
which this age of progress offers. The
oxen and horses were sleek and fat, and
the whole place lay basking in the
beaming rays of the sun, as though,
war and the enemy were far away.
Soon fugitives from the different Boer
homesteads began to hurry along the
road, on horseback and in all sorts of
conveyances. Now and again, one of
these would allow himself a moment
to "climb down" and relate to the four
women all the terrible things that he had
heard on the way. These four women
were General Kolbe's mother-in-law, a
doughty old woman; the gallant Boer's
wife; his sister-in-law, the wife of Field
Cornet Pretorius; and the latter's young
unmarried sister. No pleadings, no tales
of terror were able to persuade the
woman to leave the homestead. They
were determined to remain, come what
The stream of fugitives continued.
Gradually, a few groups of armed
burghers began to mingle with the long
array of Cape carts, and, towards evening,
General Willem Kolbe himself appeared
before his house. He was a comparative-
ly old man: his hair and beard were
lavishly streaked with grey; but the
clear eye still glowed with youthful,
fire, and the elasticity with which he
sprang from his horse was a convincing
proof of the vigour which, despite his
years, he retained.
General Kolbe had been in com-
mand of the Free Staters who in-
vested Kimberley. His tent was in the
Bloemfontein laager, and, from the kop
behind which this camp lay, many a
shell was sent which frustrated the sorties
of the garrison. He was a kind-hearted
man. His burghers loved their general,
who was always so friendly with them
and still kept his power over them.
There was always something special to
be found in his tent; it was the El
Dorado of journalists, who were allowed
to see important letters or the latest
English papers, all captured from Kaffirs
who had tried to smuggle these import-
ant things into Kimberley in order
to provide Mr. Rhodes with a little
distraction. The natives, however, fell
into the hands of the Boer pickets and
Mr. Rhodes lost his reading, which was
a pity for him and for the friends who
had wished to cheer him with it.
When two thousand mounted men of
the force which, at Rondafelsdrift, was
marching round the Magersfontein
position rode on to Kimberley, Cronje
simply gave orders to allow the
colum to enter the town. This order,
however, did not meet the views of
Kolbe and Judge Hertzog, who resolved
to turn back the enemy. The encounter
took place, and ended to the advantage
of the Free Staaters. The enemy's
cavalry was beaten back, and did not
enter Kimberley: at least, not then.
Thanks to his vigorous action,
General Du Toit of the Transvaal Army
had been enabled to bring his Long Tom
from Ottoskopje and send it to Boshof.
The general had not been home
since the beginning of the war, and
even now his stay was to be but a
short one. But, when a burgher set
out, he did so with the conviction
that he would not see his wife and
child again before the end of the
fighting, and then only if God spared
his life. The old general knew that
the war could last long, very long yet,
and that the parting would be painful
and bitter. He knew also that presently
the English would come and, in his
absence, rob his dear ones of all they
possessed. He felt how cruel their
fate would be, when they were driven
to wander roofless , shelterless. Yet,
however great his love for his women-
folk, his duty called him away. His
to protect his country and to leave
the protection of his nearest and dearest
III.KOKS OF TIIK IJOKR WAR
to Almighty God. The few hours which
he was able to spend at home he had to
devote to putting together a few things
which he would require on commando
and which could no longer be sent to
him from home. All busied themselves
eagerly with the necessary packing, and,
although every heart was oppressed,
no tears were shed. There was a
choking in the throat, it is true, but
all, with the greatest heroism, brought
for wife and child. Above all, however,
rose the feeling for independence which
alone made that parting possible.
The general mounted his horse, his
Mauser slung over his shoulder, his
bandoleer newly filled. A linen sack
full of cartridges lay across the saddle.
The attendant carried a reserve Mauser.
A last pressure of the hand, a last
farewell, and soon the clatter of the horses'
hoofs was lost in the stillness of the
A TRANSVAAL AMBULANCE.
the greatest sacrifice to bear that dear
independence can exact. A couple of
hours' sleep after the parting meal, to
which little honour was done, and, be-
fore break of day, the general's horse and
that of his trusty little Kaffir attendant
stood saddled before the door. The
leave-taking was short. The kisses
exchanged contained a world of sorrow,
of gratitude for life enjoyed, of love
night. The women listened to the last
to the dying sound, and all they said
"If we only win!''
Only an hour or two elapsed before
the British mounted troops trotted
briskly up to the house and surrounded
it on every side. Their commander
rode up to the front door, where the
young girl appeared just at the moment
MRS. LOUIS BOTHA.
HEROES OF THE BOER WAR.
when he was preparing to enter the
passage, horse and all. The girl's tall
figure rose up and, without faltering,
she pushed the big Irish hunter back,
so that it reared on its hind legs and
almost threw its rider. The soldiers
stood dumfoundered at this coolness,
and their amazement increased when
their homes. And so we are prepared
to expect every thing from you; and
yet we are not afraid."
A moment later, General Tucker
and his staff rode up to the house, and
his first question was whether there
were any arms there. General Kolbe
had taken the Mausers with him, but
/ 1 Iw
1 i r ''
MRS. BERRETT WAS THREE MONTHS ON COMMANDO AND WAS WOUNDED AT THE BATTLE
OF SPION KOP: 23-25 January 1900.
they heard that only four women and
a child inhabited this house.
"But aren't you afraid?" one of them
asked. "How do you know what you
have to expect?"
"Yes," was the undaunted reply.
"You people come to this country to
murder our fathers, brothers and hus-
bands for the sake of our gold and
diamonds. You burn our farms and
drive the women and children from
one revolver of small calibre was left
behind. The girl, however, asked for
leave to be allowed to keep this, in
order at least to be able to keep the
Kaffirs on the farm in restraint.
"Do you know how to fire it?"
asked the officer, mockingly.
"Every African woman knows how
to manage a gun and a horse," was the
proud retort. "Shall I show you?"
But the officer was afraid of the
S()I Til AFRICAN WIVES AND DAUGHTERS.
THE FATHER AND THE BRIDEGROOM LEAVING FOR THE WAS.
ominously-glittering eyes, and thought
the weapon safer in his own hands than
in the girl's.
That day and the two next, General
Tucker and his ten thousand men
bivouacked on Kolbe's farm. The
soldiers were tired and hungry and
begged for a piece of bread. What
the women had to give they gave to
the poor Tommies. When, however,
later, the officers ordered them to bake
bread against good payment, they roundly
refused to work as servants for their
enemies, and no threats were able to
The day was spent in pitching camp,
and towards evening a storm broke with
tropical violence. The wind howled over
the broad plains and made the canvas
flap again. The downpour soaked the
ground ; the wretched sentries shivered in
A short, loud knocking was heard
at the front door of the house. The
general and his staff came to ask for
leave to take their dinner indoors.
The request could not be declined; but
the women refused to sit down witli their
arch-enemies. Chairs were brought
into the hall and a candle placed on
the table. Here the officers were allowed
to wait till the women had finished
their evening meal. The British general
and his officers spent an hour in this
way in that inhospitable house. Then
one of the women came to say that
the general's servant could lay the table,
and soon the warriors were seated at
the board. Champagne and whisky
flowed in abundance; and, in spite of
the fact that they were in the thick
of war, there was no lack of toothsome
dishes prepared by the general's cook.
The hours passed, the general had
already retired to rest, but the other
gentlemen seemed to have no idea of
rising. They could not be allowed to
remain in the house for the night. But
who would have the courage to go to
tell them so? The young girl stepped
bravely into the passage, but hesitated
at the dining-room door. Twice she laid
her hand on the knob. The laughter
inside rose ever more loudly. Her heart
HEROES (>F THE BOEB WAB
beat high in her breast. How would
the officers receive her? Suddenly she
summoned all her courage, and, throw-
ing open the door, in a voice without
a perceptible tremor, said, firmly:
'•We are used to go to bed early; may
I ask whether the gentlemen prefer
to go out by the front or back door,
so that I may lock one of the two?"
Some of the officers would not hear
MRS. LUCAS MRU K 11. She is only 25 years of age
and was the brave general's second wife. "When Lady-
smitll was relieved, and the fortunes of war went against
the Boers, Mrs Aleijer joined her husband, but he would
not allow her to enconter the fatigues and dangers of
the war, and sent her home again.
of going away, but the generals aide-
"Gentlemen, if the ladies want to
go to bed, we must not detain them."
At the same time, he set the good
example of getting up; and the rest
followed the captain out into the
Scarcely had the sun risen above
the horizon on the following morning,
before a fresh knocking came at the
door, and a message was brought from
the general ordering that all the milk
from the cows was to be kept for him.
Refusals and protests were of no avail;
the order must be obeyed. On the
third day, however, the news came from
one of the British ambulances that they
were short of milk for the sick and
wounded, and, without a moment's
hesitation, the mother sent out all that
morning's milk , while the daughter
informed the general that he could have
no milk because the wounded needed it
more than he, who wanted for nothing.
Soon the bivouacking-time was over,
and the troops were ordered to march
for Bloemfontein, which had meanwhile,
on the 13th of March 1900, been
occupied by the English. One horse,
however, had to be obtained before
the march could be resumed. By
the general's command , one of the
officers went to Kolbe's house to buy
a horse. Mrs. Pretorius, however, the old
mother, refused to part with the animal
to the enemy:
"I should look upon it as treachery
to sell a horse to assist the English in
continuing this unjust Avar."
"Then we shall have to command-
"That I cannot prevent; but sell
it, never!" she proudly replied.
The answer was conveyed to the
general and impressed him:
"Let the woman keep her horse,"
he ordered; and the troops marched
away full of admiration for so much
courage and patriotism.
A few weeks later came the official
notice that all General Kolbe's property
was confiscated, and, without a tear,
the women saw the cattle driven away
that constituted their wealth and their
pride. An officer who assisted at the
scene asked if they were not sorrow-
stricken at their heavy loss:
"No," said Mrs. Kolbe, "we can get
all this back; but, if we lose our country,
we shall have lost it for ever."
SOUTH AFRICAN WIVES AND DAUGHTERS.
"But if your husband had stayed
quietly at home, you would have kept
"Yes, and my child would have
reproached me in my old age with
selling my country lor a property that
is worth less to us than our independence.''
General Kolbe's house was long
guarded by the English, who stood in
admiring dread of the stout courage
of tbese unique women , whose only
protection was their undauntedness.
They were proud to think that the Boer
general was still in the field and the
young girl's affianced husband serving
under him as a common burgher.
"You need not come home before
we have won," were her parting words
to him. "And, if you do return before,
you need not show yourself in my
On a certain day in the early part
of July 1900, Mrs. Kolbe and her sister
went to Bloemfontein; a British officer
had informed them that the general
had been taken prisoner and that he
would arrive at the capital the next
day. Her coming was very sorrowful,
but her going much more cheerful,
for the news proved to be incorrect.
Although she had not seen her husband
since March, and although she longed
for his return with heart and soul, yet
she was glad that he was able to go
on fighting for liberty.
What has become of Mrs. Kolbe
I do not know. But this I do know,
that no misery, no privations, no life
in the camps would have been able to
break her pride in her husband, who
remainded in the field, nor to kill her
bright love of her country.
And women like Mrs. Kolbe abounded
in both Republics. General De la Key's
wife, when taking leave of her husband,
gave him a second son to take with
him on commando, instead of the eldest,
who had fallen at Two Rivers (Modder
River) on the 28th of November 1899:
"Go," she said; "never mind about
us: God will care for you and inc. as
He has done in the past."
The women whom Lord Roberts sent
to the Boer lines along the Pretoria
and Komati Poort Railway cried to their
husbands when, broken with fatigue,
they arrived in the laagers:
"Don't trouble about us; we'll look
after ourselves. Yougo on fighting till the
last Englishman has been driven out
of the country."
Ask those who have been to the
camps how steadfast the women were,
how firmly prepared to suffer all rather
than lose their country.
Many of them were ordered to
persuade their husbands to lay down
their arms. They refused, were hunted
from their houses for that reason, and
saw their homes burnt before their
eyes. Others had not seen their hus-
bands, who were prisoners of war, for
a year or more. But, had the war
lasted a year, two years longer, you
would not have heard them complain:
"If we only win," they said to them-
And, in the camps, or in the
ruined homes, ill-protected by a few
sheets of zinc, where these brave women
dwelt, every evening the psalms resounded
solemnly, as the liberty- breathing night-
wind blew over the wide, still African veldt:
"For I shall yet praise the Lord
for the help of his countenance."
That was the song of consolation
of the Africander woman, her song of
constant faith, which rang in the ear- of
the British soldiers when they carried the
women to the camps, when the houses
shot up in flames.
President Steijn had more than
sufficient reason for saying, in a speech
delivered just before the second invasion
of Cape Colony, in December 1900:
"Our women have gone through
the fire of patriotism and not been
found wanting. They will suffer patiently.
if only we continue the sacred struggle
HEROES OF THE BOEB WAR.
The women were hardened by the
miseries which they had been made
to undergo. Hatred for the enemy
waxed continually in their hearts. In
the camps, they had time to tell one an-
other of their sufferings, and those
narratives stifled the last spark of fond
admiration for mighty England that
might still have lurked in their bosoms.
Their life of suffering and privation
was only endurable while they saw that
their husbands remained unfaltering in
the fight to the last.
And no more significant proof of
the spirit of the captive Boer women
can be given than that contained in the
"58 Jut a Street, Braamfontein
"31 December 1900.
"To Military Police Officer,
"On Thursday last, I was paid a visit
by Mr. P. B. de Wet, late commander
of the Federal troops of the Orange-
Free-State and lastly dwelling at Durban.
"Considering the visit was a source
of annoyance to me and I prefer not to
be troubled by such persons (as have
sworn the oath of neutrality while their
country is still waging war), I have the
honor to request you hereby that you'll
please give notice to such-like persons
to abstain in future from paying any
further visits to me.
"Your obedient servant.
(signed) "C. de Wet,
"Wife of General Christian de Wet.
I know that, alas, there were also
women who spoke differently, thought
differently; but I am devoting this
chapter only to the brave , noble,
patriotic wives and daughters of South
Africa , the heroines whose number,
fortunately, far exceeded that of the
few who betrayed their country and their
people, while their husbands were still
fighting without flinching , like the
heroes of Thermopylae, for the sacred
ideal of libertv.
THE FAMILY OF GENERAL DE WET HELD AS PRISONERS OF WAR AT
INDEX OF PLACES.
B A S. = Basutoland ; BE. = Bechuanaland; B. B. — British Bechuanaland; C. = Cape Colony; G. = German
South-West Africa: Gr.E. = Griqualand-East ; Gr. W. = Griqualand-West ; N. = Natal; O. = Orange Free State ;
P. = Portuguese East Africa; R. = Rhodesia; T. = Transvaal (South African Republic); '/,. = Zululand ; M. =
Miles; n. = North; n.-w. = North- West; n.-o. = North-East; w. = West; s. = South ; s.-w. = South-West ;
s.-e. = South-East ; e. = Kast ; R.-S. = Railway-station.
AAR (de). C. Railway- Junction, 65 M.
w. of Colesberg ... 177
ABERDEEN. 0. 25 M. s.-w. of Graaff-
ABERDEEN ROAD. C. Railway-station,
37 M. s. of Graaff-Reinet 176
ABRAHAMSKRAAL. 0. 37 M. n.-w. of
ADDO. C. Railway-station, 22 M. n.-e.
ADENDORP. (J. Railway-station, 2 VaM.
s of Graaff-Reinet.
ALBERT JUNCTION. C. Railway -
station, 4. M. n. of Burghersdorp.
ALEXANDRIA. C. 27M.s.-w.of Bathurst.
ALICE. C. 32 M. n.-w. of King Williams-
ALICEDALE. C. Railway-station, 26 M.
n. of Grahamstown.
ALIWAL NORTH. C. Railway-station
on the Orange-River.
ALKMAAR, T. On theDelagoaRailway,
10 M. w. of Nelspruit-station.
AMALIENSTEIN. C. 12 M. e. of Lady-
AMALINDA. C. Railway-station, 7 M.
n.-w. of East-London.
AMANDELBOOM. C. 53 M. n.-w. of
AMATONG ALAND. On the east-coast,
w. of Swasieland.
AMERSFOORT. T. 46 M. s.-e. of
AMSTERDAM. T. 31M.n.of PietRetief.
ARUNDEL. C. Railway-station, 16 M.
s. of Colesberg.
ASHTON. C. Railway-station, 14 M. e.
ATHERSTONE. C. Railway- station,
8 M. n. of Grahamstown.
AVONTUUR. C. About 8 M. s. of
JBAILY. C. Railway-station, 18 M. s.-e.
BALFOUR. C. 15M.n. of Fort Beaufort.
BALMORAL. T. 31 M. w. of Middel-
burg, on the Delagoa Railway.
BARBERTON. T. Railway-station, 85 to
90 M. n.-e. of Ermelo 68, 150
BARKLEY-WEST. C. 22 M. n.-w. of
BARKLEY-EAST. C. 48 M. n.-e. of
BARKLEY PASS. C. 20 M. s. of
BATHURST. C. Railway-station, 8 M.
n. of Port Alfred.
BEACONSFIELD. C. In the neighbour-
hood of Kimberlev.
BEAUFORT (Fort). C. 45 M. n.-w. of
BEAUFORT- WEST. C. Railway-station,
75 M. s.-w. of Victoria- West.
BEDFORT. C. About 36 M. n. of Fort
BEVERLEY. C. 40-50 M. s.-e.of Prieska.
BELFAST. T. 37 M. e. of Middelburg,
on the Delagoa-Railway.
BELL. C. 13 M. s.-e. of Peddie.
BELMONT. C. Railway-station, 18 M.
n. of Orange River Station . . 143. 145
BENSON VILLE. C. 14 M. n.-e. of Lady-
BEREA. BAS. 6 M. e. of Maseru.
BERLIN. C. Railway-station, 21 M. n.-e.
BETHANIE. O. Railway-station, 31. M.
s. of Bloemfontein.
BETHEL. T. 32 M. w. of Ermelo.
BETHESDA. C. 36 M. s.-w. of Middel-
BETHLEHEM. O. 44 M. e. ofSenekal.
BETHULIE. O. Railway-station, 22 M.
s.-e. of Springfontein.
BIESJESPOORT. C. Railway-station,
22 M. s. of Victoria-West.
BITTERFONTEIN. C. 48 M. n.-w. of
BLANCO. C 3 M. n. of George.
BLANCO DRIFT. C. In the neighbour-
hood of Blanco.
BLANCY- J UNCTION. C. Railway-
station, 27 M. n.-w. of East-London.
BLAUWBANK. 0. 25 M. s.-e. of Kroon-
BLINKLIP. Gr.W. 48 M. n. of Griqua-
BLINKWATEII. ( !. 26 M. e. of Bedford.
BLOEMFONTEIN. Capital of theOrange
Free State. . xxii, 3, 5, 11, 37, 38,
40, 41, 51, 53, 55, 59, 73, 77, 78, 87.
130, 132, 133, 146, 174, 186
INDEX OF PLACES.
BLOEMHOF. T. 31 M. n.-e. of Chri-
stiana, on the Vaal River.
BLUECLIFF. C. Railway-station, 18 M.
n. of Uitenliage.
BOK FONTEIN. C. 30 M. n.-e. of Piquet-
BOKSBFRG T. Railway-station, about
13 or 14 M. e. of Johannesburg.
BOLO. C. 28 M. s.-e. of (at heart.
BOLOTWA. C. 12 M. n.-e. of St. Marks.
BONAWA. C. 13 M. n. of Gala.
BOOMPLAATS. O. 18 s.-e. of Jagers-
BOSHOF. 0. 75 M. n -w. of Bloem-
fontein 24, 106, 108
BOTHA'S PAS. N.andO. border. In the
Drakenberg, 22 M. s.-w. ofVolksrust. 124
BOTHAVILLE. O. 44 M. n.-w. of Kroon-
BOVEN DOWNES. C. 35 M. s.-e. of
BRAKFONTEIN. C 30 M.e. of Victoria-
BRANDEWIJNSKUIL. G. 45 M. n.-e.
BRANDFORT. O. 36 M. of Bloem-
fontein, on the Railway.
BRANDSVLEY. C. About 75 M. n.-e.
of Calvinia 174
BRANDWACHT. C. 30 M.e. of Calvinia.
BRAUNSCHWEG. C. 10 M. n. of
BREAKFASTVLEY. C. 12 M n.-w. of
BREDASDORP. C. 40 M. n.-e. of
BREMERSDORP. T. About 40 M. e. of
BRITSTOWN. C. 20 to26M.w.ofDeAar.
BRONKHORSTSPRULT. T. Railway-
station, 43 M. w. of Middelburg. xix
BUFFELSKLIP. C. 33 M. s.-w. of Wil-
BFLFOXTEIX. C. 35M.n.-w.ofPrieska.
BULTFOXTEIX. O. 58 M. n. of Bloem-
BURGHERSDORP. C. Railwav-station,
about 22 M. s. of Aliwal North.
BUSHMAXKOP. T. 22 M.n.-e.of Heidel-
CALA. C. 40 M. s. of Barklev-East.
CALEDOX. C. 38 M. s.-e. of" Stellen-
CALITSDORP. C. 25M.e.ofLadvsmith.
CALVINIA. C. 70 M. w. of Fras'erburg.
CAMPBELL. Gr.W. 40 M.e. of Griqua-
CAPE TOWN. Capital of Cape Colony.
xiv, xv. 4, 52, 88, 169, 174, 176
CARXARVOX. C. 75 M. n.-e. of Fraser-
CARXARVOX FARM. C. 10 M. s. of
CAROLINA. T. 46 M.s.-e.ofMiddelburg.
CATHOART. C. 28 M. n.-w. of Bolo.
CATHKIN-PEAK. N. 20 M. n. of
CERES. C. 20 M. n. of Worcester.
CHARLESTOWN. N. 24 M.n. of New-
CHIVELEY. N. Railway-station, about
8 M. s. of Colenso.
CHRISTIANA. T. On the Vaal-River,
31 M. s.-w. of Bloemhof.
CLANW1LLIAM. C. About 60 M. s -w.
CLARKSON. C 21 M.w.ofHumansdorp.
CLEARWATER. C. 20 M. s.-e. of Lady-
COERNEY. C. Railway-station, 37 M.
n. of Port Elizabeth.
COLESBERG. C. Railway-station, 22 M.
w. of Norvals Pont. ... 135, 142, 145
COLENSO. N. About 14 M. s. of Ladv-
smith . 29,116,117,118,120,122,127,176
COMMADAGGA. C. 25 M. e. of Dar-
COMMITTEEDRIFT. C. 21 M. n.-w. of
CONCORDIA. O. 31 M. s. of Winburs.
CONSTABLE. C. Railway-station, 17 M.
w. of Matjesfontein.
COOKHOUSE. C 30 M. s. of Cradock.
CRADOCK. C. Railway-station, 65 M.
e. of Graaff-Reinet.
CROCODILEPOEL. B. 80 M n.of Mafe-
CROCODILEPOORT. T. Railway-
station on theDelagoa-Bay, Railway
21 M. n. of Barberton.
CROCODILEPOORT. B. 32 M. n. of
CUFERGAT. C. Railway-station, 15 M.
s.-e. of Stormberg-J unction.
DAMSLAAGTE. C. 33 M. s. of Suther-
DALMANUTA. T. Railway - station.
44 M. e. of Middelburg 92
DANTELSKUIL. C, 85 M. n.-w. of
DARLING. C. 21 M. s. of Hopefield.
DARLINGTON. C. 43 M.s.of Pearston.
DEELFONTEIN. C Railway-station,
31 M s.-w. of De Aar.
DELAGOABAY. P. On the East coast
of Africa xviii, xxi
DERDEPOORT. T. 64M.n.-e ofZeerust 46
DOORNBERGSFONTEIN. C. 28 M.
s.-e. of Prieska.
DOORNDRAAI. O. 31 M. n.-e. of
DORDRECHT. C. Railway-station, 46M.
e. of Stormberg-Junction.
[NDEX OF PLACES
DOUGLAS. C. 65 M.s.-w.of Kimberley.
DRAGHOENDER. C. 60M.e ofKenhart.
DRAKENBERG. Mountains, between
Natal and the Orange FreeState xvii,
xviii, 96, 125
URIVERSDRIFT. C. 13 M. n.-e. of
DROMELVLEY. C. 20 M. n.-w. of
DRONFIELDSTATION. C. Railway-
station, 10 M. n. of Kimberley.
DURBAN. N. Seaport on the coast of
DUNDEE. N. 34 M. s.-e. of Newcastle.
Railway-station 96, 115, 116
DIJSSELDORP. C. 14 M. e. of Oudts-
DYNAMITE FACTORY (Modderfon-
tein). T. About 12 M. n.-e. of
EASTCOURT. N. Railway-station, 31 M.
s. of Ladysmith 99
EAST-LONDON. C. About 100 M. s.-e.
of Queenstown, on the coast.
EBENEZER. C. 26 M. w. of van Rhyns-
EDENBURG. O. Railway-station, 43M.
s.-w. of Bloenifontein.
ELANDSBERG. C. 20 M. s.- w. of Cath-
ELANDSDRIFT. C 20 M e.of Cradock.
ELANDSFONTEIN. T. Railway-station,
8 M. e. of Johannesburg.
ELANDSLAAGTE. N. Railway-station,
16 M. n.-e. of Ladysmith 24, 25, 40,
42, 84, 85, 100, 151
ELANDSVLEY. C 60 M s. of Calviuia.
ELEBI. R. 120 M. n.-w. of Palla.
ELIM. C. 17 M. s.-w. of Bredasdorp.
EMPANDHLEMI. Z. 30 M. n.-w. of
ENON. C 40 M. n. of Port Elizabeth.
ENSLIN (Graspan). C. Railway-station,
26 M. n. of Orange -River Station
ERMELO. T. 53 M, n.-e. of Standerton.
ESHOWE. Z. About78M.n.-e.of Durban.
FAURESMITH. O. 37 M. w.ofEdenburg 142
FICKSBURG. O. On the Caledon river,
40 M. n.-e. of Ladybrand.
FLOOWKRAAL. C. 22 M. n.-e. of
FOURIESBURG. O. 28 M. s. of Beth-
FRANKFORT. O. 83M e of Heilbron.
FRANKFORT. C. 11 M. n. of King
FRASERBURG. C. 70 M. n.-w. of Beau-
FRASERBURG ROAD O. Railwav-stat.,
45 M. s.-w. of Beaufort-West.
FRENCHHOEK. O. 25 M. s.-w. of Wor-
FRERE. N. Railway-station, 12 M. b.
UABERONES. B. B. 65 M.n.of Zeerust.
GARIES. C. 83M.ii -w.ofvan Rhynsdorp
GOUD1VI. C. Railway-station, 8 M. w.
GEORGE. C. 29 M.s.-e. ofoiidtshooni.
GLEN-SU)L\(i. O. Railway -station,
13 M. n.-e. of Bloemfontein.
GLENCAIRN. C. 36M.s.ofQueei.stown.
GLENCOE. N. Railway-station, 31 M.
ii -e. of Ladysmith 9<i, 1 HI
GLEN CONNOR. C. Railway -station,
about 40 M. n.-w. of Port Elizabeth.
GONG-GONG. C. 30 M. n.-w. of Kim-
GOEDVERWACHT. C. 14 M. w. of
GORDONIA (District). Gr.W., w. of
GRAAFF-REINET. C. R.-S., 56 M. s.-w.
of Middelbnrg .... xiv, xv, 173, 176
GRAHAMSTOWN. C. 31 M. n.-w. of
Port Prince Alfred.
GRASPAN. C. Railway-station, 26 M.
n. of Orange-River Station 143
GREAT WINTERBERG. O. 28 M. s.
GREYLINGSTAD. T. Railway-station,
29 M. s.-e. of Heidelberg/
GREYTON. C. 30 M. s.-w. of Worcester.
GREYTOWN. N. 26 M. n. of King
GRIQUATOWN. Gr.W. 44 M. w. of
GROOTE DOORN PAN. C. 20 M. s.
GROOTE VLAKTE. C. 14 M. n.-w. of
GROOT WINTERHOEK. C. 28 M. s.-e.
HAARLEM. C. 13 M. s.-e of Uniondale.
HAKNEY. C. 30 M. s.-e. of Tarkastad.
HANKEY. C. 31 M. w. of Uitenhage.
HANOVER. C. 44 M. s.-e. of DeAar.
HANOVER ROAD. C Railway-stat.,
38 M. s-e. of De Aar 177
BARRYSMITH. Terminus of rail-
way, 52 M. e. of Bethlehem.
HARTEBEESTKUIL. C. 13 M s.-w.
HEBRON. C. 31 M. n. of Kimberley.
BEIDELBERG. T. About 30 M. s.-e.
of Johannesburg 39,
HEIDELBERG. C. 31 M.e.ofSwellen-
HEILBRON. o. Railway-station, 53 M.
n.-e. of Kroonstad.
HEKPOORT. T. 38 M. s -w. of Pretoria.
HELVETIA. T. 7 to 8 M.n.-e.of Macha-
EELVETIA. <>. 20 M. n. of Smithfield.
INDEX OF PLACES.
HEMON C. Railway-station, 13 M. n.
HERSCHEL. C. 30M.e. of Aliwal North.
HERTZOG. C. lOM.n. of Fort Beaufort.
BEUVELKRAAL. C 32 M. e. of Wil-
low mo re.
HERBERTSDALE. C. 24 M. n.-w. of
HLANGWANE BILL. N. 3 M. e. of
HOOP(de). C. 5 M. n. of Malmesbury.
HOXIXGSPRU1T. O. Railway-station,
18 M. n -e. of Kroonstad . . . 134, 156
HOPEFIELD. C. 25 M. s.-w of Piquet-
HOPETOWX. C. 9 M. n.-w. of Orange-
HOOPSTAD. O. 65 M. n.-e. of Boshof.
HOUTKRAAL. C. Railway-station, 19M.
n. of De Aar.
HOUWHOEK. C. 8 M. w. of Caledon.
HOUWATER. G. 55 M. s.-e. of Prieska.
HO WICK. X. HM.n.ofPietermaritzburg.
HUMANSDORP. C. 41 M. s.-w.of Uiten-
IXDWE. C. 20 M. e. of Dordrecht.
IRENE. T. Railway-station, 11 M. s.
ISAXDHLWAXA. Z. 32 M. s.-e. of
ISEPIXGO. N. 20 M. s.-w. of Durban.
IXOPO. X. 60 M. s.-w. of Durban.
JACOBSDAL. O. 26 M.s.of Kimberley
JAGERSFOXTEIX. 0. 31 M. w. of
JAGERSFOXTEIX. T. 25 M. n. of
JAGERSBOSCH. C. 36 M. w. of Hu-
JAKHALSFONTEIN. C. 6M. n.-e. of
JAKHALSKUTLEX. C. ISM. s.-w. of
JAMESTOWN. C. 23 M. n.-w. of Dord-
JAXSEXVILLE. C. 42 to 44 M. s. of
JOHANNESBURG. T. 34 M. s. of Pre-
toria . . xxi, 16, 18, 24, 27, 28, 32,
40, 46, 78, 90, 91, 92, 133, 139, 150
KAAPMUIDEX. T. Railway-station,
38 M. n. of Komatipoort.
KAKAMAX. C. About 130 M. n.-w. of
Prieska, on the Orange-River.
KAKAMANSDRIFT. 0. 44 M. s.-w. of
KALABASKRAAL. C. Railway-station,
10 M. s. of Malmesbury.
KAMAGGAS. C. 27 M. s.-w- of Ookiep.
KAMIESBERG. s. of Ookiep in Na-
KAHNEMELKSPRUIT. C. 20 M. n.-w.
KATKOP. O. 15 M. s.-e. of Heilbron.
KEISKAMAHOEK. C. 20 M. n.-w. of
KENDREW. C. Railway-station, 20 M.
s. of Graatt-Reinet.
KENHART. C. About 100 M. w. of
KHEIS. C. 70 M. w. of Griquatown.
KIMBERLEY. C. 33 M. s.-w. of Boshof
xviii, xxi, 73, 105, 106, 107, 109,
139, 141, 143, 145, 181
KING WILLIAMSTOWN. C. R.-S.,
about 40 M. n.-w. of East-London.
KLAARSTROOM. C. 56 M. n. of Wil-
KLEINPOORT. C. Railway-station, 43M.
n.-w. of Uitenhage.
KLERKSDORP. T. Railway -station,
30 M. s.-w. of Potchefstroom ... 59
KLIPDRIFT. O. 20 M.s.-e.of Bethlehem.
KLIPHEUVEL. C. Railway -station,
16 M. s. of Malmesbury.
KLIPPLAAT C. Railway-station, about
50 M. s. of Graaff-Reinet.
KLIPRIVIER. T. Railway-station, 13 M.
s. of p:iandsfontein .... 29, 101, 152
KXAPDAAR. C. Railway-station, 33 M.
n. of Aliwal-Xorth.
KXYSXA. C. 27 M. s. of Uniondale.
KOEKEMOER. T Railway-station, 9 M.
e. of Klerksdorp.
KOEBERG. C. 40 M. e. of Ookiep.
KOFFIEFOXTEIX. O. 26 M. s.-e. of
KOKSTAD. C. 70 M. n.-e. of Maclear.
KOMASTOXE. C. 14M.s.-e.of Tarkastad.
KOMATIPOORT. T. 61 M. n.-e. of
Barberton, on the Delagoabav-
Railway 30, 34, 187
KOMGHA. C. 30M. n. of East-London.
KOEDOESDRIFT. O. 39 M. e of Mod-
KRAAIPAN. C. Railwav-station, 30 M.
s.-w. of Mafeking . . 142, 143
KROOXSTAD. O. Railway-station, 63M.
n. of Winburg . . . 11, 38, 41, 59, 136
KRUGERSDORP. T. Railway-station,
about 18 M. n.-w. of Johannes-
burg .... xxi, 42, 117, 149, 158, 160
KRUGERSPOST. T. About 13 M. n.-e.
KWELEGHA. C 14M.n. of East-Lond.
L.ADYBRAXD. O. 77 M. e. of Bloem-
LADYFRERE. C. 25 M. n.-e. of Queens-
LADYSMITH. N. About 56 M. s. of
Newcastle . . 7, 29, 57, 84, 96, 97,
98, 99, 100, 101, 103, 107, 115,
151, 152, 153, 156, 186
INDEX OF PLACES.
LADYSMITH. C. 54M.w.ofOudtshoorn.
LADYGREY. C. 32M.e.ofAliwal North.
LAINGSBURG. C. Railway-station,
30 M. n.-w. of Ladysmith.
LAING'S-NEK. N. 5M.ofVolksrust, in
the north of Natal . . . xx, 152, 158, 159
LANGVERWACHT. 0. 16M.s.ofVrede.
LESSEYTOWN. C. 6 M.n.ofQueenstown.
LETJESBOSCH. C. Railway -station,
23 M. s.-w. of Beaufort-West.
LEIJDS. T. 80 M. n.-w. of Pretoria.
LEIJDSDORP. T. About 70 M. w. of
LICHTENBURG. T. 78 M. s.-w. of
Rustenburg 140, 147
LELYFONTEIN. C. About 60 M. s. of
LINDLEY. O. 45 M. s.-e. of Kroonstad 134
LOBATSI.BE. R.-S., 50 M.n.ofMaf eking.
LORENZO MARQUEZ. P. On the De-
LOWRY PASS. C. Railway - station,
13 M. s. of Stellenbosch.
LUCKHOFF. 32 M.w.ofFauresmith.
LIJDENBURG. T. 42 M. n.-e. of Ma-
chadodorp xviii, 85
ST. LUCIA BAY. Z. On the coast of
the Indian Ocean.
ST. LUCIA CAPE. Z. On the coast of
the Indian Ocean.
MACHADODORP. T. 50M.e.ofMiddel-
burg, on the Delagoa-Railway.
MACLEAR. Gr.E. 48 M. e. of Barkley-
MAFEKING. B.B. R.-S., about 95 M.
n.-e. of Vryburg . . . xxi, 142, 143, 145
MAFETENG. Bas. 13 M. e. of Wepener.
MAGERSFONTEIN. O. About 15 M. s.
ofKimberley 7,8, 23, 24. 27, 100, 105,
108, 109, 112, 129, 131, 141, 143, 145,
146, 165, 176, 181
MAJUBAHILL. N. 41 M.e.ofVrede xx, 100
MALAGAS. C. 20 M. s.-e. of Swellendam.
MALMESBURY. C. 36 M. n.-e. of
MARAISBURG. C. 38M.n. of Cradock.
MARICO. T. About 95 M. n.-w. of
MATJESFONTEIN. C. 73 M. n.-e. of
MEIRINGSPOORT. C. 21 M. n.-e. of
MELMOTH. Z. 68 M. s.-e. of Vrijheid.
MIDDELBURG. T. About 78 M. e. of
Pretoria, on the Delagoa Railway 126
MIDDELBURG. C. Railway-stat., about
24 M. s. of Naauwpoort-Junction.
MIDDELBURG ROAD.C. Railway-stat.
MIDDELPOST. C. 36M.s.-e.ofCalvinia.
MIDDELTON. C. Railway-station, 31 M.
n. of Alice Dale.
M1DDELWATER. ( ' About 40 M. s. of
MODDERFONTEIN. ( ). 30 M. s.-e. of
M( JDDERFONTEIN. C. 25 M. n.-e. of
MODDER-RIVER STATION. C. R.-S.,
22 M. s. of Kimberley.
MODDERSPRUIT. N. 9. M. n.-e. of
MOHALLES HOEK. BAS. 28 M. s. of
3IOLTENO. C. 17M.n.-w.ofSterkstroom.
MOUNT-AUX-SOURCES. N. 52M.s.-w.
MONTAGUE. C. 25 M. n.-w. of Swellen-
MORTIMER. C. R.-S., 1 7 M.s. of Cradock.
MORYA. BAS. 22 M. n.-e. of Mafeteng.
MOSSEL BAY. O Seaport, 215 M. e.
MUISKRAAL. C. 18 to 23 M. n.-w. of
MURRAYSBURG. C. 52M.w.ofGraaff-
NAAUWPOORT. C. Railway-station,
32 M. s. of Colesberg.
NAUWPOORT. O. lOM.n.-e.ofVrede.
NAPIER. C. 40 M. s.-e. of Swellendam.
NELSPRUIT. C. Railway-station, 32 M.
n.-e. of Beaufort-West.
NELSPRUIT. T. Railway-station, 60M.
w. of Komatipoort.
NEW -CASTLE. N. Railway -station,
26 M. s. of Volksrust . . . 96, 102, 125
NEW BETHESDA. C. 36 M. s.-w. of
NIEKERKS HOPE. C. 14 M. w. of
NORVALSPONT. C. Railway-station,
on the Orange-River, 30 M. s.-w. of
NIJLSTROOM. T. R.-S., 72 M. n. of
Pretoria, on the Pietersburg-Railway.
OCKERTSKRAAL. C. 15 M. s.-w. of
ODENDAALSTROOM. C. 18 M. n.-w.
of Aliwal North.
< >LIFANTSHOEK. T. 13 M. s. of
OLIFANTSVLEY. C. 72 M. s.-e. of
ONDERSTE DOORNS. C. 70 M. s. of
OORLOGSKLOOF. C. 27 M. n.-e. of
OOKIEP. C. About 140 M. n. of van
ORANGE-RIVER STATION. C. R.-S.,
9 M. s.-e. of Hopetown.
OTTOSKOPJE. Gr. W. 4 M. n.-e. of
INDEX OF PLACES.
OTTOSHOOP. T. 16 M. s. of Zeerust.
ori>TSH<M>HN.C. 54M.w.ofUniondale 176
OUT3PAN. C. 20 M. n.-e. of Uniondale.
<>I TIIINC HAS. 30M.n.-w.oflh-rschol.
PAARDEKRAAL. T. 3M.n.ofKrugers-
PAARDEKRAAL. O. 9 M.s.-w.of Heil-
bron xix, 42, 43
I'VARDENBERG. O. 28M.s.of Boshof
23, 32, 73, 108, 110, 131, 144, 158, 159
PAARL. C. 33 M. u.-e. <>( Capetown.
PAKHUIS. C. 10 M e. of Clan william.
PAL A P YE. R, 145 M. w. of Fort Tuli.
PALLA. BE. 82 M. s. of Palapve.
PELLA. C. 125 M. w. of Kenhart.
PALMIETFONTEIN. T. 23 M. n.-e. of
PAMPOENPOORT. C. 33 M. w. of Car-
PAN. T. R.-S., 15 M. e. of Middelburg.
PARIJS. O. 55 M. n. of Kroonstad, on
PEARSTON. C. 45 M. s.-e. of Graaff-
PEDDIE. C 35 M. w. of Grahamstown.
PETERSBURG. C. w. of Graaff-Reinet
PETRUSVILLE. C. 25 M. n.-e. of
PHILADELPHIA. C. 20 M. n. of
PHILIPSTOWN. C. 32 M. n.-e. of
PHIZANTEFONTEIN. C. 38 M. s. of
PHILIPPOLIS. O. 24 M. w. of Spring-
PIENAARSSTAT[ON T . T. Railway-stat.,
38 M. n. of Pretoria.
PIETERSHILL. N. 4 to 6 M. n. of Colenso,
s. of Ladvsmith .... 100, 152
PIETERMARITZBURG. N. Capital of
Natal, 45 M. n.-w. of Durban xviii, 96
PIETRETIEF. T. 62 M. n.-e. of Volks-
PILGRIMSRUST. T. 23 M. n.-e. of
PIQUETBERG. C. 51 M. s. of Clan-
PITSANI. BE. R.-S.,32M.n.ofMafeking.
PITSANI. BE. 35 M. w. of Mafeking.
PIETERSBURG. T. Terminus of rail wav,
about 150 M. n.-e. of Pretoria ... 64
POPLAR GROVE. O. 30 M. s.-e. of
Boshof 133, 159
PORT ALFRED. C. Seaport, 70 M.
s.-w. of East-London.
PORT ELIZABETH. C. Seaport, on
the south coast of Cape Colonv.
PORTERVELLE. C. 15 M. s.-e. of
PORT NOLLOTH. C. Seaport on the W.-
coast, about 72 M. n.-w. of Ookiep.
PORT SHEPSTON. N. Seaport, 70
M. s.-w. of Durban.
POSTRETIEF. C 16 M.w. of Seymour.
POTCHEFSTROOM. T. Railway-station,
54 M. w. of Vereeniging . . . 138, 171
POTFONTEIN. T. 23M.e.ofStanderton.
POTSDAM. C. Railway-station, 17 M.
n.-w. of East-London.
PRETORIA. Capital of the South-
African Republic xix, xxi, 4, 13,
15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 30, 40, 42, 48, 49,
62, 63, 64, 65, 69, 70, 71, 75, 87, 90,
93, 96, 100, 102, 121, 133, 131, 159
PRIESKA. C 78 M. w. of Hopetown
PRINCE ALBERT. C. 29 M. n.-w. of
PRINCE ALBERT ROAD. C. Railway-
station, 25 M. n.-w. of Prince Albert.
PRINCE ALFRED. C. 6 M. n. of Ceres.
PUFF ADDER WATER. C. 21 M. s.-e.
PUTFONTEIN. C. 30 M.s. of Aberdeen.
PUTTERSKRAAL. C. Railway-station,
6 M. s.-e. of Sterkstroom.
QUEENSTOWN. C. Railway-station,
30 M. s.-e. of Sterkstroom.
RAM ATH LAB AM A. BE. Railway-stat,,
18 M. n. of Mafeking.
RAMOUTSA. BE. Railway-station, 72 M.
n. of Mafeking.
RAWSONVILLE. 0. 20 M. w. of Wel-
RAYNER. C. Railway-station, 7 M. n.
REENEN'S PAS (van). N. 20 M. e. of
Harrvsmith (Drakenberg) 125
REDDERSBURG. O. 32 M. s.of Bloem-
REITZ. O. 34 M. e. of Lindley.
REITZBURG. O. 42 M.n. of Kroonstad.
RENSBURG. C. R.-S., 9 Ms ofColesberg.
REST (de). C. 22 M. n. of Piquetberg.
RHODES. C. 20M.n.-e.ofBarklev-East.
RHODESIA, n. of Transvaal.
RHODESDRIFT. T. 30 M.s.-w.of Fort-
RHYNSDORP (van). C. 41 M. n. of
RICHMOND. C. 53 M. s. of De Aar.
RICHMOND ROAD. C. Railway-stat.,
24 M. n.-w. of Richmond.
RICHTERSVELD. C. 50 M. n. of Port
RIEBEEK. C. 30 M. n.-w. of Grahams- •
RIETFONTEIN. T. 16 M. s.-w. of Pre-
RIETFONTEIN. C. 17 M. n.-e. of
RIETFONTEIN. T. 6 M. s. of Middel-
INDEX OF PLACES.
RIETFONTEIN. T. 10 M. s. of Lichten-
EIETVLEY. T. 16 M. s.-e. of Lichten-
RIVERSDALE. O. 1 1 M. n. of Lindley.
ROBERTSON. C. Railway-station, 27 M.
s.-e. of Worcester.
RONDEGAT. C. 7 M. s.of Chuiwilliam.
R< )( )DE AAR. C. 32 U. n.-w. of Piquet-
ROODE HOOGTE. C. Railway-station,
10 M. s.-w. of Middelburg.
ROODEKOP. C. North of Carnarvon.
ROODEPOORT. T. Railway -station,
7 M. s.-e. of Krugersdorp 149
RORKESDRIFT. N. 24 M.s.-e.of Dundee.
ROSME AD -JUNCTION. C. Railway-
station, 28 M. s.-e. of Naauwpoort-
ROUXVILLE. O. 47M.s.-w.ofWepener.
RUSTENBURG. T. 60 M.w of Pretoria 46
SANDFLATS. C. 15 M. s.-w. of Alice-
SALEM. C. 11 M. s. of Grahamstown.
SANNA'S POST. O. 25 to 27 M. s.-e.
of Bloemfontein 133, 137
SARON. C. 10 M. n.-w. of Tulbagh.
SCHMIDTSDRIFT. C On the Vaal,
40 M. w. of Kimberley.
SCHWEIZER REINEKE. ' T. 38 M. n.
SENEKAL. O. 40 M. n.-e. of Winburg.
SEVEN WEEKS POORT. C. 15 M.
n.-e. of Ladysmith.
SEYMOUR. 0. 17M.n.of KingWilliams-
SHILOH. C. 25 M. s.-e. of Cala.
SHOSHONG. BE. 70M.s -w.of Palapye.
SIDBURY. C. 22 M. s.-e. of Grahams-
SIMONSTOWN. O. Railway -station,
18 to 20 M. s. of Capetown.
SLANGFONTEIN. O. 40 M. n.-e. of
SMALDEEL. O Railway-station, 61 M.
n.-e. of Bloemfontein 58
SMITHFIELD. O. 42 M. s.-w. of De
SOMERSET. C. Railway-station, 27 M.
s.-e. of Capetown.
SOMERSET-EAST. C. Railway-station,
90 M. n. of Port Elisabeth.
SOUTHEYV1LLE. C. 35 M.e. of Queens-
SPEKTAKEL. C. 17 M. s.-w.of Ookiep.
SPIONKOP. N. 21 M. n.-w. of Colenso
30, 123, 127, 151, 184
SPITSKOP. C. About 40 M. w. of
SPITSKOP. O. 35 M.e. of Kroonstad.
SPRINGBOKFONTEIN. C. A little s.
SPRINGE* >NTHIN. 0. Railway-Junc-
tion, 40 M. s.-w. of Edcnburg.
SPRINGS. T. Railway-Terminus, 25 M.
w. of Johannesburg.
12 M. s. of Kimberley.
STANDERTOX. T. Railway-station.
s.-e. of Johannesburg 117
STANGER. N. Railway-station, 40 M.
n.-e. of Durban.
ST. ALBANS. C. 30 M. s.-e. of Cala.
STELLENBOSCH. C. 25 M. e. of Cape-
STEINKOPF. C. 55M.e.ofPortNolloth.
STERKSTROOM. C. 25 M. s -e. of
STEYNSBURG. C. Railway -station,
42 M. e. of Rosmead-Junction.
STEIJNSDORP. T. 25 M. s.of Barberton.
STEIJTTERVILLE. C. About 70 M.
n.-e. of Uniondale
ST. MARKS. C. 31 M. s.-e. of Queens-
STORMBERG. C. Railway-station, 20 M.
s. of Burghersdorp . . . . 132, 133, 176
STOLZENFELS. G. 60 M.n.-e.of Pella.
STUTTERHEIM. C. 21 M. n. of King
SUTHERLAND. C. 60 M. s.-w. of
SWANEPOELSPOORT. C. 26 M. n.-e.
SWELLENDAM. C. 60 M. s.-e. of
TAAIBOSCHFONTEIN. C. Railway-
station, 30 M. s.-e. of De Aar.
TAFELBERG. O. 55 M. s.-e. of Kroon-
tamboersfontp:in. C. 40 M. w.
of Beaufort- West.
TARKASTAD C. Railway-station, 38 M.
e. of Cradock.
TAUNGS. C. R.-S., 40 M. s. of Vryburg.
THABA BOSIGO. BAS. 43 M. u.-e. of
THABANCHU. O. 48 M. e. of Bloem-
THORNHILL. C. 7 M.s.ofQueenstown.
TROE TROE. C. 3M.s.ofvanRbvnsdorp.
TSOMA. C. 33 M. n.-e. of Cathcart.
TULBAGH. C. 13 M. n.-w. of Ceres..
TULI (Fort). R. About 150 M. n. of
TWEE BOSCH. T. 42 M. s.-w. of
TWEEFONTEIN. O. 25 M. w. of
TWEEWATERS. C. 17 M. s.-e. of
TYLDEN. C. R.-S., 14 M. n. of Cathcart.
CITENHAGE. C Railway-station, 20
to 22 M. n.-e. of Port Elisabeth.
INDEX OF PLACES.
UTKI.ik. T. Railway-station, 5 M.w.
I MZLNTO. N. 42 M. s.-w. of Durban.
II.UNDI. Z. 83 M. n. of Eshowe.
I AIONDALE. C. 32 M. s.-w. of Wil-
1 PINGTON. 0. About 60 M. n. of Ken-
UTRECHT. T. 31 M. s.-e. of Volksrust 116
VAALKOP. C. In then, of Cape Colony.
\ A.M. KUANS. N. On the Tugela, about
15 M. n.-w. of Colenso . 127, 150, 151
VALSCH RIVER, 0. Tributary of the
Vaal River, n.-w. of Kroonstad . . 11
VENTERSSTAD. C. 21 M. s.-e. of Nor-
VENTERSDORP. T. 32 M. n.-w. of Pot-
VENTERSBURG. O. 31 M. s. of Kroon-
YEREENIGING. T. Railway-station,
30 M. s. of Johannesburg.
VERULAM. N. Railway-station, 15 M.
n. of Durban.
VICTORIA-WEST. C. 45 M. n. of Rich-
VICTORIA-WEST. ROAD. C. Railway-
station, 9 M. s. of Victoria-West.
VIERFONTEIN. O. Railway-Terminus
23 M. n. of Bothaville.
VILJOENS DRIFT. T. On the Vaal
River, near Vereeniging .... 38, 79
VILLIERSDORP. C. 26 M. e. of Stellen-
VILLIERSDORP. O. 18 M. n. of Frank-
VLAKFONTEIN. T. Railway-station,
17 M. s.-w. of Heidelberg.
VLAKFONTEIN. T. 30 M. w. of
VREDE. O. About 60M.from Harrysmith.
VREDENDAL. C. 14 M. s.-w. of van
VREDEFORT. 0. 47 M.n. of Kroonstad.
VOLKSRUST. T. 53 M. s.-e. of Standerton 1 1 6
VRYBURG. B.B. Railway-station, 95 M.
s.-w. of Mafeking.
VRIJHEID. T. 61 M. s.-e. of Volksrust
114, 115, 127
WAGEXAARSKRAAL. C. 40 M. n. of
AVAKKERSTROOM T. 18 M. w. of
WALLEKRAAL. C. 21 M. w. of Garies.
WARMBAD. G. 48 M. n. of Pella.
WARM HAD. T. About 60 M. n. of Pre-
toria, on the Pietersburg-Railway.
WARREXTON. C. Railway - station,
46 M. n. of Kimberlev.
WASCHBANK. N. Railway - station,
about 10 M. s. of Glencoe 119
WATERBERG. T. n. of Pretoria.
WATERFORD. C. 35 M. s. of Pearston.
WATERVAL-BOVEN. T. Railway-
station, 5 or 6 M.e. of Machadodorp.
WATER VAL-ONDER. T. Railway-stat.,
8 or 9 M. e. of Machadodorp.
WEENEN. N. 15 M. n -e. of Eastcourt xvii
WELLINGTON. C. Railway -station,
38 M. n.-e. of Capetown.
WELVERDIEND. T. n. of Potchef-
WEPENER. O. 60 M. s.-e. of Bloem-
WESTON. N. 33 M. n.of Pietermaritzbg.
WETSDORP(de). O. 42M.s.-e.ofBloem-
WHITTLESEA. C. 22 M. s. of Queens-
WITKLIP. C. 18 M. n.-e. of Murrays-
WILLOWMORE. C. Railway-station,
65 M. s.-w. of Aberdeen 176
WIMBLEDON. C. Railway-station, 8M.
s. of Kimberley.
WLNBURG. O. 68 M. n.-e. of Bloem-
WINDSORTON. C. 30 M. n.-w. of Kim-
WITMOS. C. R.-S.,27M.s. ofCradock.
WITWATER. C. Railway-station, 9 M.
n. of Orange-River Station.
WITWATERSRAND. T. Mountains xx,
WITTEWATER. C. Near Piquetberg.
WOLMARANSSTAD. T. 48 M. s.-w. of
WOLVEFONTEIN STATION. C. Rail-
way-station, 23 M. s.-w. of Darlington.
WORCESTER. C. Railway-station, 63 M.
n.-e. of Capetown
WUPPERTHAL. C. 18 M. s.-e. of Clan-
will i am.
WYKSVLEY (van) C. 45 M. n.-w. of
ZASTRON. O. 39 M. s. of Wepener.
ZEEKOEGAT. C. About 35 M. n.-e. of
ZEERUST. T. 39 M. n. of Lichtenburg.
ZOUTPAN. T. 65 M. n. of Pieters-
ZOUTPANSBERG. T. District in the
north of Transvaal .... xviii, 2, 117
ZUURBERG. C. 5M. s. of Willowmore.
ZUURBRAAK. C. 14 M. n.-e. of Swel-
ZWAGERSHOEK. C. 30 M. s.-w. of
Hesse & Becker, printers, Leipsic.
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